chapter 4 outline - I Learning and Perception a Fundamental...

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I) Learning and Perception a. Fundamental Learning Principles i. Learning 1. A process through which individuals change their behavior based on positive or negative experiences in a situation. a. Learning only occurs when there is a change in behavior due to changes in attitudes or beliefs or general knowledge if no behavioral changes occur- learning did not occur. ii. Operant Conditioning and Social Learning Theory 1. Definition a. An explanation or consequence based learning that assumes learning results from simple conditioning and that higher mental functioning is irrelevant 2. What is means a. B. F Skinner believed that all human learning is the result of simple conditioning, just as in cats, rats, dogs and monkeys. iii. Social Learning Theory 1. Definition a. An explanation for the consequence based learning that acknowledges the higher mental functioning of human beings and the role such functioning can play in learning. 2. What it means a. Humans can learn from observing others and do not need to directly experience a particular situation to develop some understanding of the behaviors that are rewarded in that situation. iv. Contingencies of Reinforcement 1. Basic Elements a. The Situation i. Referred to as the stimulus situation b. The behavioral response of the associate or manager to the situation c. The consequences of the response for the associate or manager. 2. Positive and Negative Reinforcement a. Positive Reinforcement i. A reinforcement contingency in which a behavior is followed by a positive consequence, thereby increasing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the same or similar situations ii. Examples: 1. Peer approval
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b. Negative Reinforcement i. A reinforcement contingency in which a behavior is followed by the absence of a previously encountered negative consequence, thereby increasing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the same or similar situations. ii. Examples: 1. If working harder and smarter removes the frown from a manager’s face, an associate may attempt to work harder and smarter c. Punishment i. A reinforcement contingency in which a behavior is followed by a negative consequence, thereby reducing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the same or similar situations d. The Use of Punishment at Union Carbide(based on National Labor Relations Act) i. First offense- the problem is discussed informally discussed with peers or manager ii. Second Offense-The associate receives one or more written reminders iii. Third Offense-The associate is suspended one day, with pay, and asked to review future with the organization iv. Fourth Offense- The associate is Terminated e. Punishment Tips i. Deliver punishment as quickly as possible after undesirable action ii. Direct the punishment at specific behaviors hat have been made clear to the recipient iii. Deliver the punishment in an objective, impersonal fashion iv. Listen to the offending party’s explanation before taking action.
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