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Spectral Tables (for Exams)

Spectral Tables (for Exams) - Approximate Chemical Shifts...

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Unformatted text preview: Approximate Chemical Shifts of - 1 Frequency Functional Group Comments Hydrogens m H'NMR Spectra " 1'" he alcohol 0—H Always broad ' 3300 cm"1 amine, amide N-—-H May be broad, sharp, or broad with spikes alkyne EC—H Always sharp, usually strong I alkane —$—-H Just below 3000 crn’l 000 *1 H 3 cm alkene =C< Just above 3000 cm‘1 acid O—~H Very broad 2500-3500 cm“ -1 alkyne -CEC— Just below 2200 cm"1 2200 cm nitrile -—CEN Just above 2200 cm“ 1710 cm-1 carbonyl >C==O Ketones, aldehydes, acids (very strong) (very strong) Esters higher, about 1735 cm" Conjugation lowers frequency Amides IOWer, about 1650 cm“1 \ alkene / =C< Conjugation lowers frequency Aromatic C=C about 1600 cm"l " . . \ / 1660 cm mune /C=N Stronger than C=C amide \ /C=O Stronger than C=C (see above) Ethers, esters, and alcohols also show C—O stretching between 1000 and 1200 cm“. Approximate Chemical Shifts of Carbons in I3C-NMR Spectra i3 :4 t ‘( l° Alkyl, RCH, 2" Alkyl. RCHzR 3° Alkyl, RCHR; Alkyl halide or amine, —-$—X I (X = Cl, Br, or N—) Alcohol or ether, ~C|:-O 50-90 Alkyne, ——cE 60-90 \ Alkene. C= |00—l70 / / \ Aryl, —- loo-I70 Nitriles, —C-—=-N l l20—I 30 0 i ll l Amides, —"C"‘N'— l50—l80 0 ll Carboxylic acids.esters. —C—‘O l60—l85 0 || Aldehydes, ketones, —C-— l80—2l5 ...
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