K11. Teratogenic Drugs - dr.Darmawan, M.Kes, Sp.PD

K11. Teratogenic Drugs - dr.Darmawan, M.Kes, Sp.PD -...

This preview shows page 1 - 12 out of 35 pages.

TERATOGENIC DRUGS Darmawan,dr.,M.Kes,Sp.PD
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Teratogenicity: The presenceof major congenital malformations Congenital malformations can be defined as nonreversiblefunctional or morphological defects present at birth
Image of page 2
The teratogenic effects of medications vary temporally Depends on its period of development Different organs have differentcritical periods The span from gestational day 15 to day 60 is critical
Image of page 3

Subscribe to view the full document.

Factors That Determine the Effects of Teratogens Dose reaching fetus Point in development when drug exposure occurs Duration of exposure Environmental factors Susceptibility of the fetus
Image of page 4
Ex: The heart is most sensitive during the third and fourth weeks of gestation external genitalia are most sensitive during the eighth and ninth weeks The brain and skeleton are sensitive from the beginning of the third week to the end of pregnancy and into the neonatal period
Image of page 5

Subscribe to view the full document.

Genetic defects and medications can cause similar abnormalities warfarin and Happle syndrome syndrome is a genetic disease of bone and cartilage characterized by defective bone mineralization, telebrachydactyly,and facial dysmorphism with nasal hypoplasia
Image of page 6
The FDA assigns a safety category for medications by using a 5-letter system: A, B, C, D, and X. This safety category must be displayed on the labels of all drugs
Image of page 7

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 8
Amlodipine/atorvastatin Pregnancy category – X Trimesters of risk - First, second, and third Associated defects and complications - Variable; spina bifida cholesterol biosynthesis are essential components for fetal development (including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes)
Image of page 9

Subscribe to view the full document.

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARBs]) Pregnancy category – D Trimesters of risk - First, second, and third Associated defects and complications - Hypotension, renal dysplasia, anuria or oliguria, oligohydramnios, IUGR, pulmonary hypoplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, incomplete ossification of the skull, and intrauterine or neonatal death
Image of page 10
Antineoplastics (busulfan, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, mechlorethamine) Pregnancy categories - D and X Trimesters of risk - First, second, and third Associated defects and complications: Observed
Image of page 11

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 12
  • Spring '17
  • Andriani
  • neural tube defects, Valproic acid, Associated defects, Pregnancy category

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Get FREE access by uploading your study materials

Upload your study materials now and get free access to over 25 million documents.

Upload now for FREE access Or pay now for instant access
Christopher Reinemann
"Before using Course Hero my grade was at 78%. By the end of the semester my grade was at 90%. I could not have done it without all the class material I found."
— Christopher R., University of Rhode Island '15, Course Hero Intern

Ask a question for free

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern