057_Ho_6_RG_3__07 - Chem 057 J. Walcott CENTER FOR LEARNING...

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Chem 057 CENTER FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING Handout #6 J. Walcott LEARNING STRATEGIES CENTER Fall 2007 Review Guide #3 Lectures: 9/3/07 – 9/7/07 Chapter 2 I. Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen. Alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. The carbon-carbons bonds are sp 3 - 3 ± bonds and the carbon-hydrogen bonds are 3 -1 s ± bonds. II. Alkanes A. Alkane Isomers 1. Isomers are compounds with the same number and kinds of atoms. They have the same molecular formulas – not the same molecular structure. 2. Constitutiona l (structural) isomers have the same molecular formula but a different connectivity. One has to make and break bonds to interconvert constitutional isomers. They have different names. 3. Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula and the same connectivity but their arrangement of atoms in space differs. More on this topic will come later. B. Nomenclature 1. Know the names of the unbranched alkanes to 10 carbons. Unbranced alkane chains are sometimes called normal alkanes, or n-alkanes. The general molecular formula of an acyclic alkane is C n H 2n+2 , where n is the number of carbon atoms. The number of H atoms decreases by 2 for each ring and/or each double bond in the structure. 2. Understand the IUPAC rules used in assigning the names of substituents to an alkane. You must be able to apply the rules discussed in lecture. Note that Professor Ruttledge handles ± complex substituents ² in a manner that differs slightly from that in the text. Some general rules follow. Please refer to your class notes and problem sets for specific examples. a. Find the longest continuous carbon chain (principal chain) with the most number of substituents. b.
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2008 for the course CHEM 057 taught by Professor Walcott, j during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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057_Ho_6_RG_3__07 - Chem 057 J. Walcott CENTER FOR LEARNING...

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