Chapter6 - Chapter 6 Skeletal Cartilages: The few...

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Chapter 6 Skeletal Cartilages: The few cartilages that remain in adults are found mainly in flexible regions. Cartilage consists primarily of water, and its high water content accounts for its resilience which allows it to spring back to original shape after compression. 1) Skeletal cartilage displays cells called chondrocytes housed in lacunae (cavities). The extracellular matrix is a jelly like (ground substance and fibers). It lacks nerve fibers, and is avascular 2) Fibrous dense irregular connective tissue or perichondrium resists expansion and is the outside layer of the cartilage that contains blood vessels from which nutrients diffuse through the matrix to reach the cartilage cells. B) Basic Structure, Types, and Locations 1) Hyaline cartilages appear glassy; and their fibers are collagenic. They provide support with flexibility and resilience and are the most abundant skeletal cartilages, and is the toughest cartilage. i) Articular cartilages which cover the ends of most bones at movable joints. ii) Costal cartilages which connect ribs to sternum iii) Respiratory cartilages , which form the skeleton of the larynx (voice box), and reinforce respiratory passage ways iv) Nasal cartilages support external nose 2) Elastic cartilage is like hyaline cartilage because it contains collagen fibers, but it contains more stretchy elastic fibers. It is more flexible than hyaline cartilages. Can with stand more repeated bending. They are only found in the outer ear and epiglottis (the flap that bends to cover the opening of the larynx each time we swallow). 3) Fibrocartilages contain thick collagen fibers, are the most compressible cartilages, and are resistant to stretch. The perfect intermediate between hyaline and elastic. They form vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages. These cartilages form in areas that have heavy pressure. C) Growth of Cartilage: cartilage has a flexible matrix that grows in two ways. Cartilage also accommodates mitosis. 1) Cartilages grow from the inside (interstitial growth). Lacunae with chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix. 2) It also grows from the outside by addition of new cartilage tissue at the periphery (appositional growth).
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Chapter 6 3) Calcification can happen when salts are deposited on cartilage. Cartilage becomes hard. Classification of Bones A) Axial skeleton- skull, thoracic cage and vertebrae B) Appendicular skeleton is upper and lower limbs, pelvic girdle, and pectoral girdle C) Bones are classified as: 1) Long bones are longer than wide. The large long bones form secondary centers in both epiphyses 2) Short bones are cubed shaped such as the wrist and ankle. Small long bones form only one secondary ossification center Sesamoid bones are shaped like a seed such as the patella and they alter the direction of the pull of tendons. 3)
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Chapter6 - Chapter 6 Skeletal Cartilages: The few...

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