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exam_1A_L07-eq - d maxima occur where d sin θ = m with m...

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Some Equations for Exam 1 sin 30 = 1 / 2 = 0 . 5; cos 30 = 3 / 2 = 0 . 87; tan 30 = 1 / 3 = 0 . 58 sin 60 = 3 / 2 = 0 . 87; cos 60 = 1 / 2 = 0 . 5; tan 60 = 3 = 1 . 73 Some constants: c = 3 × 10 8 m/s; e = 1 . 6 × 10 - 19 C; 1 / (4 π 0 ) = 9 . 0 × 10 9 N · m 2 / C 2 . For light in vacuum: = c . For light in matter: v = c/n . Law of Reflection: θ incidence = θ reflection ; Law of Refraction: n 1 sin θ 1 = n 2 sin θ 2 The Mirror Equation ( r > 0 for concave mirror, r < 0 for convex mirrors): 1 p + 1 i = 2 r . For a thin lens ( f > 0 for converging lenses, f < 0 for diverging lenses): 1 p + 1 i = 1 f . Lateral magnification for a mirror or lens: m = - i/p For two thin slits separated by distance d : Maxima occur when d sin θ = with m = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , . . . Minima occur when d sin θ = ( m + 1 2 ) λ with m = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , . . . Diffraction for a slit of width a : minima occur where a sin θ = , with m = ± 1 , ± 2 , . . . For a diffraction grating with grating spacing
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Unformatted text preview: d , maxima occur where d sin θ = mλ , with m = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , . .. . • Rayleigh’s criterion for a circular aperture of diameter d : θ R = 1 . 22 λ/d. • Magnitude of the electric ²eld of a point charge: E = 1 4 π± q r 2 . • Force on a point charge: F = q E . • Gauss’ Law for electricity: ± ± E · d A = q. • Electric potential difference: Δ V = Δ U q =-final ² initial E · d s . Δ U is the change in potential energy. Energy conservation: Δ K + Δ U = 0. • Electric potential for a point charge (under the condition V ( ∞ ) = 0): V ( r ) = 1 4 π± q r ....
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