Chapter-17 - M17_STAL6329_06_SE_C17.QXD 2/28/08 3:13 AM...

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N ETWORKING 17.1 The Need for a Protocol Architecture 17.2 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture TCP/IP Layers TCP and UDP IP and IPv6 Operation of TCP/IP TCP/IP Applications 17.3 Sockets The Socket Socket Interface Calls 17.4 Linux Networking Sending Data Receiving Data 17.5 Summary 17.6 Recommended Reading and Web Sites 17.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems APPENDIX 17A The Trivial File Transfer Protocol Introduction to TFTP TFTP Packets Overview of a Transfer Errors and Delays Syntax, Semantics, and Timing 17-1 CHAPTER M17_STAL6329_06_SE_C17.QXD 2/28/08 3:13 AM Page 17-1
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17-2 CHAPTER 17 / NETWORKING With the increasing availability of inexpensive yet powerful personal computers and servers, there has been an increasing trend toward distributed data processing (DDP), in which processors, data, and other aspects of a data processing system may be dis- persed within an organization.A DDP system involves a partitioning of the computing function and may also involve a distributed organization of databases, device control, and interaction (network) control. In many organizations, there is heavy reliance on personal computers coupled with servers. Personal computers are used to support a variety of user-friendly applica- tions, such as word processing, spreadsheet, and presentation graphics. The servers house the corporate database plus sophisticated database management and informa- tion systems software. Linkages are needed among the personal computers and be- tween each personal computer and the server.Various approaches are in common use, ranging from treating the personal computer as a simple terminal to implementing a high degree of integration between personal computer applications and the server database. These application trends have been supported by the evolution of distributed ca- pabilities in the operating system and supporting utilities.A spectrum of distributed ca- pabilities has been explored: Communications architecture: This is software that supports a group of net- worked computers. It provides support for distributed applications, such as electronic mail, file transfer, and remote terminal access. However, the com- puters retain a distinct identity to the user and to the applications, which must communicate with other computers by explicit reference. Each computer has its own separate operating system, and a heterogeneous mix of computers and operating systems is possible, as long as all machines support the same com- munications architecture. The most widely used communications architecture is the TCP/IP protocol suite, examined in this chapter. Network operating system: This is a configuration in which there is a network of application machines, usually single-user workstations and one or more “server” machines. The server machines provide networkwide services or ap- plications, such as file storage and printer management. Each computer has its own private operating system. The network operating system is simply an ad- junct to the local operating system that allows application machines to interact with server machines. The user is aware that there are multiple independent
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Chapter-17 - M17_STAL6329_06_SE_C17.QXD 2/28/08 3:13 AM...

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