Class_13_Feb_13_Chapt_5-6 - 0.08g/100 mL blood c Special...

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CHEM 001 Class 13 Class Notes February 13, 2008 C. Cecil Cuppett, Ph.D. Chapter 5,6: 1. Carbon can found in a number of forms. These forms are generally called allotropes. The forms are graphite (lead pencils, lubricant), diamond (jewelry, industry), charcoal (fuel, adsorbant), and fused rings (buckyballs, nanotubes- made in 1985). 2. Carbon can bond to oxygen atoms to form many commonly used substances. a. Ethers are used as starting fluids because they are highly flammable. Ethers have been used for anesthetics also- but they are dangerous. MTBE is an ether that is added to some gasoline to prevent knock. b. Alcohols are used for drinking, rubbing, fuels, windshield washer solvent and artificial sweeteners. Alcohols are excellent solvents because they mix with both water and hydrocarbons. Pure ethanol is 200 proof. Fetal alcohol syndrome may result as a consequence of drinking while pregnant. The liver can “clear” about one drink per hour. The legal limit for blood alcohol is
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Unformatted text preview: 0.08g/100 mL blood. c. Special alcohols are ethylene glycol (antifreeze), glycerol (hand crème and nitroglycerine), sorbitol (low calorie sweetener), polyvinyl alcohol (Elmer’s glue), and “pot” (tetrahydrocannabinol). d. Aldehydes and esters are used extensively for food flavorings and aromas. They are also used in colognes and perfumes. Formaldehyde is used for embalming fluid (formalin). Vanilla and cinnamon contain aldehydes. e. Ketones such as acetone (fingernail remover) are very useful solvents because the can dissolve in both water and organic substances (fingernail polish). f. Carboxylic acids comprise many of the sour foods we enjoy. Acetic acid is in pickles and the sour candies have malic and citric acid. Rancid butter smells bad because of the butyric acid formed. Fats and oils are composed of carboxylic acids bound to glycerol....
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