Class_15_Feb_18_Chapt_7 - was These people are advised to...

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CHEM 001 Class 15 Class Notes February 18, 2008 C. Cecil Cuppett, Ph.D. Chapter 7: 1. Carbohydrates are substances that are composed of sugar. Simple “carbs” are sugars and complex carbs are usually starches. These substances contain about 4.5 calories of energy per gram. If this energy is not used by the body, the carbohydrates are transformed into fat and stored in the fat tissues. 2. Simple sugars are glucose (also called dextrose), fructose (as in high fructose corn syrup) and sucrose (common table sugar). Sucrose is a double sugar that has one glucose molecule bonded to one fructose. Single sugars are called monosaccharides and double sugars are called disaccharides . 3. Some people cannot metabolize sugar normally and these folks may have diabetes . Type I diabetes is caused by the destruction of the pancreas. No insulin can be made and the sugar in the blood cannot enter the cells adequately. These people must inject insulin into themselves. Type II diabetes usually occurs in older, inactive, overweight people. In this case the insulin is just not as effective as it once
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Unformatted text preview: was. These people are advised to lose weight, watch their diet, and take medications for diabetes. 4. Lactose is a disaccharide made from glucose and galactose and this sugar is in milk. Some people cannot split this disaccharide and so the sugar goes directly into the intestine where is attracts water and gives the person diarrhea and gas. This is called lactose intolerance. 5. Starch is a polymer of glucose. Starches are amylose, amylopectin and glycogen. Cellulose (wood) is also a polymer of glucose. The “ fiber ” in food is composed of starches and cellulose that cannot be digested in the intestines. Some athletes practice carbohydrate loading. 6. Some sugar substitutes are sugar alcohols (sorbitol, manitol, and xylitol). These sugars can cause digestion distress in some people. Many compounds taste sweet such as antifreeze and the various sugar substitutes (saccharin, splenda)....
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course CHEM 001 taught by Professor Cuppettc during the Spring '08 term at Penn State.

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