WilhelmBauer-Unit1 - History and Regulations of Emergency...

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History and Regulations of Emergency ManagementWilhelm J. Bauer IIIKaplan UniversityFS 120: Introduction to Emergency ManagementAaron BingamanSeptember 29, 2015
Emergency management is an ancient discipline that deals with risk and risk avoidance. Risk represents a broad range of issues and includes an equally diverse set of players. The range of situations that could possibly involve emergency management or the emergency management system is extensive. This supports the premise that emergency management is integral to the security of everyone’s daily lives and should be integrated into daily decisions and not just calledon during times of disaster. Understanding the history and evolution of emergency management is important because at different times, the concepts of emergency management have been applied differently. Unlike other more structured disciplines, emergency management has expanded and contracted in response to events, congressional desires, and leadership styles (2011). The first federal involvement in disaster management appears with an 1803 Congressional act to provide financial assistance to a New Hampshire town. During the 1930s, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the Bureau of Public Roads make disaster loans available for public facilities, and the Tennessee Valley authority is created to reduce flooding. The Flood Control Act of 1934 gave the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authority to design and build flood control projects (2011).Several major natural disasters resulted in significant human and financial losses. An earthquake in Montana (Hebgen Lake) had a 7.3 on the Richter scale, Hurricane Donna on West Coast of Florida, and Hurricane Carla in Texas. The Office of Emergency Management was established in the White House as a result in 1961. The Ash Wednesday Storm in 1962, 620 milesof shoreline affected, caused $300 million in damages. 1964 earthquake on Prince William Sound, Alaska (9.2) caused tsunami on West Coast killing 123. Hurricane Betsy (1965- in Florida and Louisiana, along with Hurricane Camille 1969), in particular, spurs the passage of
the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, effectively creating the National Flood Insurance Program and introducing the concept of community-based mitigation. In 1972, NFIP participation was linked to homeowner loans increasing the benefits of the program (2011).The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 gives HUD (Housing and Urban Development) the greatest emergency management authority. Emergency Management functions existed in several federal agencies. Under President Carter, following the accident at Three Mile Island, the Federal Emergency Management Agency was created in 1978 (2011). President Carter's 1979 Executive Order 12127 merged many of the separate disaster-related responsibilities into the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Among other agencies, FEMA absorbed: The Federal

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