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Unformatted text preview: WHAT ARE THE TRIADS? THE TRIADS? Secret societies. Roots of some are 2000 years old. Steeped in legend. Loyalty, family, friends, networks. 4. Guanxi, qingqing. qingqing. GUANXI 5. Networks. Connection. Obligation. 6. Bound to others in an ever expanding web of social relations bearing mutual obligate bonds of varying strength. 7. Dyadic relations--some natural; some that must be acquired, cultivated, & maintained. 8. Each level serves as an intermediary between those above & below. QINGQING 9. Mutual reciprocity. 10. Similar to Southern Italian famiglia. famiglia. 11. Pooled & shared resources. 12. Obligated to provide each member with the resources for living. QINGQING The strength of the hierarchical qingqing relationships marginalizes government law. EFFECTS OF THESE CULTURAL FEATURES. Familial- & group-focused cultures provide advantages in business. They also provide conduits to develop strong criminal organizations. Italian famiglia. Chinese qingqing. Other? What? famiglia. qingqing. THE TRIAD PHENOMENON IS A NATURAL EXTENSION OF THESE CULTURAL ATRIBUTES. 13. Guanxi can function globally. 14. Guanxi provides a dynamic force for international business. 0. 1. 2. 3. TRIAD REPRESENTS 3 BASIC CONCEPTS LEGENDARY ORIGINS The Triad society system is part of Chinese history, mythology, & legend. Its roots are more than 2000 years old, embedded deep in Chinese culture. The modern variant dates from the mid-1700s. LEGENDARY HISTORY: THE MONKS OF SHAO LIN 17. Martial arts. 18. Warriors & strategists. 19. Loyalty & discipline. 20. Destruction of the temple. 0. the 5 survivors formed the Triad secret society. 15. Qingqing provides a hierarchy for decisions & responsibility. 16. Qingqing ensures loyalty. 1. The "5 Ancestors" "OVERTHROW THE QING & RESTORE THE MING" Triad motto implying opposition to established political order, distrust of foreign devils & gweilos (white ghosts). GLOBALIZATION: 19th & 20th CENTURIES Wherever Chinese people immigrated, the Triads came also. THE DEGENERATION PHASE: PATRIOTS BECAME CRIMINALS Began in Hong Kong: 21. Historic haven for pirates, malcontents (dissidents). 22. 1842: governing authorities: British & Triads. 23. Triads took over the trade guilds. A CENTURY & A HALF OF CRIME. 1845 Triad membership in Hong Kong was made illegal, but the law was ineffective. Criminal activity in the labor market: 24. Extorting money from coolies. 25. Controlling some types of employment. 26. Fomenting strikes & disputes. ACCOMMODATION TO AUTHORITIES. 27. Exploited the Chinese community but stopped challenging British authorities or colonial settlers. 28. Confined largely to HK, there was less opportunity to challenge the Qing dynasty. 29. What to do with their energy? Crime. AND ALSO A BENEVOLENT SOCIETY FOR MEMBERS Services for members: 30. Jobs. 31. Education for the children. 32. Medical bills. TRIAD INFLUENCE IN HONG KONG. 33. Controlled the trading economy. 34. Penetrated the police & govt. clerical posts. 35. Anti-Imperialist Republican Party established a regional headquarters in HK. 36. 1901: Republican Party founded its own Triad society, the Chung Wo Tong, as a liaison vehicle among all the HK Triads. DR. SUN YAT-SEN: LEADER OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY 37. Triad member & senior officeholder. 38. 1895: failed coup d'etat; fled China. d'etat; 39. Traveled the globe talking to expatriates. 40. 1912: Qing overthrown, Republic of China born, provisional President Sun Yat-sen (resigned soon). THE WO GROUP OF TRIADS Wo group of Triads which became, & still is one of the most powerful of all Triad groups both in HK & internationally. SOME OTHER TRIADS 0. Man On 1. Fuk Yee Hing 2. T'ung 3. Tung 4. Chuen 5. Shing 6. Yee On 7. Luen EXAMPLES OF PUBLIC COVERS 8. Fuk Yee Hung: 0. Fuk Yee Industrial & Commercial General Assn. 1. Kiu Kong Hoi Lok Fung Workers' & Merchants' Benevolent Assn. 9. Yee On: Yee On Commercial & Industrial Guild. 10. Chuen: established street hawkers' assns. 11. Luen: ironworkers' assns. 12. Wo: death gratuity assns. 13. Many martial arts clubs were aligned with a Triad. THE NEWBORN REPUBLIC OF CHINA: TRIAD HEYDAY.* Triad membership: 42. Required for promotion in civil service & army. 43. Greased the wheels of banking & business. GREEN GANG SOLDIER: CHIANG KAI-SHEK 44. Murderer? Extortionist? Armed robber? Revolutionary. BIG-EARED TU & CHIANG KAI-SHEK Tu Yueh-sheng was the leader of the Green Gang, a Triad syndicate operating out of Shanghai in the early 1900s. Dominated the opium & heroin trade in Shanghai. Chiang Kai-shek's secret sponsor. ALLIANCE: KUNG BANKING & GREEN GANG TRIAD 1915-1940: 45. Amassed a fortune from banking, stock market dealings & company takeovers. 46. Controlled the Chinese economy. AFTER WWII, A GROWING CRIMINAL FRATERNITY. 47. Extortion, prostitution, labor manipulation, opium dealing, protection rackets. 48. Symbiosis: Triad-run labor markets, Triad-owned tenements & food shops, coolie renters, opium, prostitution, Triads fence goods stolen by the coolies. THE GREAT BANK OF CHINA ROBBERY 41. After the declaration of the Republic in 1911, this society evolved into the 1949: Chiang arranged for a freighter. Bribed & threatened (Tu) the bank officials. Opened the doors to the vaults. Loaded the gold onto the freighter. A similar sized load of gold had already been taken by the Kungs and Soongs. WHERE DID CHIANG KAI-SHEK'S TRIAD MEMBERS GO? 49. Golden Triangle 50. Taiwan 51. Hong Kong 52. Mainland MOST HONG KONG TRIADS HAVE EVOLVED INTO LOOSE-KNIT GROUPS OPERATING & COOPERATING WITH ONE ANOTHER ON THE BASIS OF PERSONAL INTRODUCTIONS & MUTUAL INTERESTS. MAJOR TRIADS BASED IN HONG KONG AND TAIWAN HAVE AUTONOMOUS BRANCHES EXTENDING GLOBALLY. The reputed leader of the United Bamboo is a wanted man in Taiwan. Served prison terms in the U.S. for drug trafficking. Now lives in Shenshen, north of Hong Kong. His connections make him an attractive ally to the rich & influential. His politics make him attractive to Beijing. TRIADS WORKING TOGETHER 53. International but not monolithic. 54. Most is ad hoc cooperation. 55. Specific mutually profitable projects. 56. Drug trafficking, human smuggling. THE RED GUARD & THE BIG CIRCLE 14. 1969: some Red Guards fled to Hong Kong. 15. Maintained camaraderie as the Big Circle. 16. Leaders initiated into the Gang of Tranquil Happiness. 17. Specialty: counterfeit credit cards & documents. 18. Also, drug trafficking, alien smuggling, vehicle theft & trafficking, financial, intellectual property, & high-tech crimes, extortion, prostitution, gaming crimes. THE BIG CIRCLE (Dai Huen Jai) & THE FUK CHING 19. Criminal groups from mainland China. 20. Cells operate in countries around the world. 21. Autonomous. Not centrally controlled. 22. Cell leaders have extensive connections, plan & organize complex operations. 23. Ad hoc cooperation with other organized crime groups. 24. Drug trafficking, arms trafficking, alien smuggling, financial fraud. Tong-affiliated gang. Non-Tong-Affiliated Gang. TRIADS & BUSINESS 57. Not all Triad member activity is criminal activity. 58. Triad members are found in every occupation & profession. 59. Chinese International drug trafficking syndicates may form for specific projects. They may but do not necessarily include some Triad members. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2008 for the course CRM LAW SC 131 taught by Professor Bickford during the Summer '08 term at UC Irvine.
- Summer '08