Sex and the Security State: Gender, Sexuality, and "Subversion" at Brazil's Escola Superiorde Guerra, 1964-1985Author(s): Benjamin CowanSource: Journal of the History of Sexuality,Vol. 16, No. 3, Latin American Sexualities(Sep., 2007), pp. 459-481Published by: University of Texas PressStable URL: Accessed: 13-03-2017 20:24 UTCJSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusteddigital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information aboutJSTOR, please contact [email protected]Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available atUniversity of Texas Pressis collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journalof the History of SexualityThis content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Mon, 13 Mar 2017 20:24:36 UTCAll use subject to
Sex and the Security State: Gender, Sexuality,and "Subversion" at Brazil's EscolaSuperior de Guerra, 1964-1985BENJAMIN COWANUniversity of California, Los AngelesThe maintenance of a reasonable state of national security constitutes acontinuous and unceasing process . . . [because] the Nation itself . . . willalways have contrary interests that threaten its sovereignty and freedom,circumstances that destabilize its internal life, and ideologies that challengefaith in its institutions.Gen. Oswaldo Cordeiro de Farias, "A Seguranca Nacionalno panorama mundial da atualidade"1IN LATE MARCH 19 6 4 "contrary interests" and threats to "nationasecurity" reached an intolerable pitch, as far as top Brazilian militarofficials were concerned. Amid unprecedented polarization in nationpolitics, populist President Joao Goulart accelerated his leftward drifsanctioning radically nationalistic economic and social reforms. Goularnicknamed "Jango," even dared to support the unionization of enlistemen, a move that-from the perspective of an alarmed and incensed officecorps-constituted a direct threat to the military hierarchy. Anti-Goulaforces responded swiftly and unilaterally, and by the morning of 2 AprilBrazilians could harbor little doubt that Jango's reformist presidency hadcome to a sudden and dramatic end. A military coup d'etat, supported Goulart's civilian opponents and by the United States' diplomatic representatives, had begun on 31 March, its conspirators accusing Goularof attempting to achieve a communist dictatorship in Brazil. The "Revlution of 1964"-for so the coup plotters dubbed their assumption of'Speech delivered at Escola Superior de Guerra, 1961,18-19, Escola Superior de GuerrBiblioteca General Cordeiro de Farias (hereafter ESG BGCF), document number C-01-Unless otherwise noted, all translations from the Portuguese are my own.