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c131+z08+ENTER+THE+DRAGON-human+smuggling - • Well...

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1. ENTER THE DRAGON: INSIDE CHINESE HUMAN SMUGGLING ORGANIZATIONS ZHANG & CHIN (2002) •Organizational goals •Organizational structure •Compare to OC conventional attributes 2. Organizational goals • Instrumental ($_€¥RMB) • Exploit an economic opportunity • Fill a marketing niche 3. Organizational structure, generally. • “Frontier “ enterprise. • Anyone with the right connections and “guts” can participate. • Triad or gang membership not germane. • Snakeheads: mostly private citizens. • Utilize their personal resources, mostly in the form of guanxi. 4. Organizational structure: Snakeheads & task forces • Command centers: the big snakeheads. • Where are they? China? U.S? Citizens? Green card? • No clear hierarchical order. No “godfather.” • Small task forces. Project-based. Socially connected.
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Unformatted text preview: • Well developed division of labor. Fee based payment. 5. Organizational structure: spets • Recruiters • Coordinators • Transporters • Document vendors • Corrupt public officials • • Guides • Crew members • Enforcers • Debt collectors 6. Characteristics of the smuggling business according to Zhang & Chin. • Haphazard in its business formation. • Irregular in its planning & execution. • Uncertain in its outcomes. 7. Characteristics of Chinese human smuggling. • Oral agreements—no written contracts. • Special methods of guarantee to facilitate transactions. • Secrecy; defense mechanisms. • Systematic corruption. • Temporary participants. Compare to conventional OC attributes...
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