– August 2
was an American
reformer and abolitionist
, in addition to Republican member of the
U.S. House of Representatives.
For fourteen years first in
and after 1833 at
he devoted himself,
with great success to his profession.
When he was appointed head of the Massachusetts board of education he began his
work which placed him at the foremost ranks of American Educationists.
Mann’s reforms included the establishment of a single school system throughout the
state. Mann was responsible for public school systems in 1827 Massachusetts.
Prior to Mann, schooling was private and only available to the wealthy.
After much work, he finally gets it passed that tax dollars pay for schooling.
He was also the founder and editor of
The Common School Journal (1838).
The effect that Horace Mann’s reforms had on society was tremendous.
He stirred a revolution in the common school system of Massachusetts which in turn
influenced the educational direction of other states.
In addition, mothers, as “good domestic women” wanted their children to get a proper
Mann is remembered fondly as “the father of American public education”.
"Lowell Mill Girls"
was the name used for female textile workers in Lowell, Massachusetts
in the 19th century.
The Lowell textile mills
employed a workforce which was about three quarters female;
this characteristic caused two social effects:
a close examination of the women's moral behavior,
and a form of labor agitation.
The Lowell female textile workers wrote and published several literary magazines, including
, which featured essays, poetry and fiction written by female textile workers.
They also actively participated in early labor reform through petitions, formation of labor
organizations, essay and article contributions, and protesting through "turn-outs" or strikes.
In October 1840, the Reverend Thomas of the First Universalist Church organized a monthly
publication by and for the Lowell girls. As the magazine grew in popularity, women contributed
poems, ballads, essays and fiction – often using their characters to report on conditions and
situations in their lives.
Robert Gould Shaw
– July 18
was the colonel
in command of the all-black
54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry
entered the American Civil War