2300 final

2300 final - When presented with two sides of an argument...

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When presented with two sides of an argument we tend to dissect and scrutinize the words that construct each opposing point to discern what we believe to be their intended meaning, or what the argument is asking us to believe. Sometimes pictures, diagrams, and other visual representations are used as adjuncts to an argument, but they are often regarded as a crutch for those who need a way to visualize the argument (Mishra, 2004). It is important to realize that the picture itself may be making part of the overall case, and that it may even be making an argument of its own (Birdsell & Groarke, 2004). This is especially true when pictures are used as evidence to a verbal claim, for without them a debate may be nothing more than a matter of “Whose word would you rather take?” The theory of visual argumentation is challenged by the conception that visual images are intrinsically subjective and convey meaning that is necessarily less precise than words (Birdsell & Groarke, 2004). I would argue that an image can make a claim that is very exact, and that this claim can be used to frame an entire argument, in this case whether or not the attached photo provides evidence that the Apollo 8 mission successfully landed on the moon. The remainder of this discussion will focus on a photograph that was purportedly taken during one of the Apollo missions that (purportedly) landed on the moon. I will investigate two opposing theories; that the image was taken from the moon during a lunar landing, and that the image was falsified, implying that America did not actually make it to the moon when NASA said we did. The overall argument could be constructed around a claim made by this photograph, which could be stated verbally like this: If light coming from these three-
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dimensional objects strikes the chemically treated plastic sheet within this camera for a given exposure time, a two-dimensional representation of the objects will be produced in exactly the fashion as they are shown, assuming that the photograph has not been intentionally altered in any way. To put it into context, this image is claimed by NASA to be the first photograph taken by humans of Earthrise during the Apollo 8 mission (Wikipedia). It should also be noted that both sides agree that there are no stars visible in the photograph. Now we will discuss how the arguments are constructed around the claim made by the photo. One common conspiracy theorist argument centers on the first part of the claim
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2300 final - When presented with two sides of an argument...

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