Learning & Memory - Learning Language acquisition...

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ing Information Analysis term (or “primary”) memory term (or “secondary”) memory al enance in primary memory via rehearsal Learning Language acquisition o Language is learned o Brains develop over a lengthy time period Lots of animals don’t need to learn o Ready-to-run out of the box o Innate behaviors o In single-celled orgs o In bugs o In fish o In mammals Humans require lots of learning o 15 years or so to get the survival basics down o 18 years (or more!) to get the social structure Evolutionary trade-off o Innate behavior Rapidly available But it can’t change o It can’t deal with novel situations o It can’t be erased (easily) It takes up space that could be used for something else Learned behavior o Takes a while to become available o Can change as needed In robotics 1
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o Learned vs. “innate” behavior Robotics Machine learning How do we learn? Habituation Association o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning Habituation o Ability to reduce or discontinue response to a repetitive or predictable stimulus o o Even in simple organisms Light-sensitive bacteria vary their sensitivity depending of environment Neurons habituate to levels of neurotransmitter o Addicts need more cocaine to get the same high over time The mind is the concatenation of elements o “associations are to mind what gravity is to objects” – Hume o Experience with the world leads to changes in the association between two particular  elements o What counts as associated o Contiguity Elements that appear together in space of time will be associated “paper” and “pencil” Hebbian learning o Similarity 2
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Elements that are similar in form will become associated Classical conditioning o Unconditioned stimulus o Unconditioned response o Conditioned stimulus o Conditioned response Behaviorism o The mind is a black box o o Any stimulus should be able to be paired with any response given enough exposure J. Watson, in  Behaviorism  (1930) o “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring  them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any  type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even  beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities,  vocations, and race of his ancestors” Little Albert Study o Watson, 1920 o Showed a 9 month old boy a stuffed toy rabbit
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Learning & Memory - Learning Language acquisition...

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