ASTR 100 Test Notes

ASTR 100 Test Notes - Solar flares explosive outbursts of...

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Solar flares – explosive outbursts of twisted-tube energy through the photosphere during sunspot maxima Prominences – eruptions of solar material from the side view (a hook or curve) Filaments – what prominences are called from the frontal view Coronal mass ejection – gas that is spewed out when a prominence erupts E=MC 2 – explains the energy source of all stars Hadrons/Baryons : protons, neutrons, composed of quarks (Hadron = Heavy) Leptons : electrons, muon, tau (EACH has an anti-particle and neutrino) (Lepton = Light) Quarks : six flavors, three colors of each (eighteen total) Gluons – how quarks are glued together Glueballs – matter comprised of only gluons Fusion reactions – occur when sub-atomic particles with different nuclei interact releasing energy to create heavier nuclei Atomic nucleus – comprised of protons, neutrons, Protons – massive, positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom Neutrons – massive, nuclear particles with no electric charge Strong/weak nuclear force – nuclear reactions between nuclear particles Nuclear fusion – two nuclei form to create a larger nucleus, while releasing energy as gamma rays Proton-proton chain – a series of nuclear reactions when 4 protons end with a helium nucleus Deuterium – a hydrogen nucleus that contains one neutron and one proton Positron – anti-electron; a positively charged electron emitted from the nucleus in some nuclear reactions Neutrino – an elementary particle that has little mass and carries energy from a nuclear reaction Particle density – the number of separate atomic and/or nuclear particles per unit of volume Pressure – the force per unit area Pressure of a gas – molecular speed and density Equation of state – in solar matter, pressure, density, and temperature are related Hydrostatic Equilibrium – static fluid balance: when a sun or planet is neither shrinking nor growing; pressure above from weight and pressure below are balanced Computer model of the sun – coupled partial differential equations (a combination of equations and knowledge) Standard solar model – theory of solar energy production (billions of neutrinos per second flow from the sun) Helioseismology – measuring the frequencies of solar oscillations (comparing to solar models helps find more discoveries – Dr. Rhodes is trying to understand the reasons for these differences) SOHO – Solar and Heliospheric Observatory: launch a new solar spacecraft to study the sun from a point directly between sun and earth Michelson Doppler Imager – obtains solar images for helioseismic studies Brightness – the apparent brightness of an object as seen from earth Luminosity – the total rate at which electromagnetic energy is being emitted in all directions Erg – centimeters/grams/second (what a star’s luminosity is measured in) Apparent magnitude – the measure of the amount of light received from an object One magnitude difference – ratio of 2.512 (100 to the fifth root), it is logarithmic and backward
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ASTR 100 Test Notes - Solar flares explosive outbursts of...

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