Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - CHAPTER 7: The Nervous System K. Wells, Spring...

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CHAPTER 7: The Nervous System K. Wells, Spring 2008 VPHY3100: Elements of Physiology Dept. Physiology & Pharmacology College Vet. Med.
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Lecture Outline Organization of the nervous system Structure & function of glial cells Structure & function of neurons The membrane potential & electrical excitability Ion channels & the action potential The synapse & synaptic transmission Neurotransmitters & their receptors
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 The Nervous System Two cell types of the nervous system Neurons Glia Two divisions of the nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Overall structure of the CNS 7 major parts of the CNS 3 broad regions of the brain From Kandel et al ., Principles of Neural Science, 4th Ed.
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Anatomy of a Neuron FIGURE 7.2
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Terminology Table 7.1 CNS = brain & spinal cord PNS = all nervous tissue outside of CNS Functional classes of neurons: Aff erent neurons --> sensory neurons Eff erent neurons --> motor neurons Somatic motor neurons Autonomic motor neurons Inter neurons Nuclei vs. ganglia “Fibers”: tracts vs. nerves
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FIGURE 7.3 Afferent  Efferent  Efferent 
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Morphological Classes of Neurons FIGURE 7.4
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Lecture Outline Organization of the nervous system Structure & function of glial cells Structure & function of neurons The membrane potential & electrical excitability Ion channels & the action potential The synapse & synaptic transmission Neurotransmitters & their receptors
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Supporting Cells: Glia FIGURE 7.5
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Astrocytes (CNS) Most abundant type of glial cell (outnumber neurons 10:1 Multiple functions via end-feet on capillaries & neurons Oligodendrocytes (CNS) Function: insulation of central axons One oligodendrocyte per ~15 internodes (multiple axons) Function: insulation of peripheral axons One Schwann cell per internode “Neurilemma” vs. “myelin sheath” Predominant Glia of Vertebrates
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08
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Astrocytic Functions FIGURE 7.10 Glucose uptake from blood; lactose delivery to neurons K+ re-uptake Neurotransmitter (glutamate) re-uptake Glutamate/Glutamine shuttle to re-supply neurons with neurotransmitter Synaptogenesis & neurogenesis Establish & maintain the blood-brain barrier Neurotransmitter release -- role in electrical excitability?
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 The Blood-Brain Barrier From Kandel et al ., Principles of Neural Science, 4th Ed.
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Wells/VPHY3100/Spring08 Astrocytes (CNS) Most abundant type of glial cell Multiple functions via end-feet on capillaries & neurons Oligodendrocytes (CNS) Function: insulation of central axons One oligodendrocyte per ~15 internodes Myelin sheath (“white matter”) Schwann cells (PNS) Function: insulation of peripheral axons One Schwann cell per internode “Neurilemma” vs. “myelin sheath” Predominant Glia of Vertebrates
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FIGURE 7.7
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Chapter 7 - CHAPTER 7: The Nervous System K. Wells, Spring...

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