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Running head: VENOUS AND ARTERIAL DISORDERS1Venous and Arterial DisordersLeslie LillyWalden UniversityAdvanced Pathophysiology6501Dr. Linda FrazierMarch 23, 2017
Running head: VENOUS AND ARTERIAL DISORDERS2Venous and Arterial DisordersOne must first understand what the cardiovascular system entails to understand disorders that involve the vascular system. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood that blood vessels transport. The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body. Any change to thefunction of one or all the components can lead to a vast array of disorders in the body, this makesit imperative to understand the normal and abnormal functions for proper diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The purpose of this paper is to explain the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep vein thrombosis. This will also detail how age is a risk factor, detail symptoms, and the diagnosis and treatment of said disorders.Chronic Venous InsufficiencyChronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins are among the most prevalent medical problems in the adult population.Lower extremity venous insufficiency and varicose veins are extremely common disease processes, thought to be the seventh most common indication for medical referral in the United States (Fan, 2005). Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is defined as “inadequate venous return over a long period” (Huether & McCance, 2017, p. 598). To understand venous insufficiency, it is crucial to understand that veins are what return the circulating blood to the heart from the organs and extremities. There are valves inside of the veinto prevent backflow and pooling of blood, when they become weak or malfunction, this allows the blood to leak back or pool in the vein because of gravity. CVI results from varicose veins andvalvular incompetence. Circulation becomes compromised causing tissue hypoxia that goes on toinitiate an inflammatory reaction leading to ulcerations known as venous stasis ulcers.
There are numerous reasons as to why CVI may occur, such as smoking, valve destruction, valve dysfunction, obesity, thrombus formation in the veins, vein malformations, andsedentary lifestyle. Symptoms of CVI can range from swelling of the lower extremities, varicose veins, a leathery appearance to the skin, itching of the legs or feet, and eventually stasis ulcers.