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URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS1NURS 6501: Advanced PathophysiologyWeek 10 DiscussionUrinary Tract InfectionsINITIAL POSTThe urinary tract is considered a sterile environment that is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra (Huether & McCance, 2017). A urinary tract infection is caused by an invasion from a pathogenic organism and are the most common infection that an individual experiences after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections. They are also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for hospitalized patients (Najar, Saldanha, & Banday, 2009). Infections can be classified into two categories based on their location, upper and lower. If the microorganism affects the bladder or urethra then it is classified as a lower infection, whereas if the kidney is affected it is classified as an upper infection (Lockwood, 2015). It is especially particular among young, sexually active women with an estimated 1 in 3 women developing a urinary tract infection before the age of 24 years (Sobieszczyk, n.d.).The urinary tract hosts its own defense mechanisms. An individual’s urine has an acidic pH that is intolerable by pathogens, a high urine osmolality, urinary inhibitors of bacterial adherence, competitive inhibitors of attachment to uroepithelial cells, along with the mechanical flushing of urine to prevent bacterial colonization (Najar et al., 2009). There is also mucosal