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ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK1NURS 6501: Advanced PathophysiologyWeek 5 Discussion 2Anaphylactic ShockINITIAL POSTPathophysiologyAnaphylaxis is a rare but severe allergic reaction. It can occur suddenly, can worsen quickly and can be deadly. Anaphylactic shock begins with exposure of a sensitized individual toan allergen, such as insect venom, shellfish, foods, and medications (Huether & McCance, 2017).Anaphylaxis is a form of distributive shock. The reaction occurs when the body’s antigen recognizes an allergen, or trigger, causing antibodies to bind to the antigen. This leads to the release of histamine, bradykinin, and leukotrienes resulting in vasodilation that results in maldistribution of blood within the body and increased capillary permeability. In turn, this causesdecreased venous return, decreased cardiac output, decreased tissue perfusion and severe hypotension. With the increased capillary permeability, this causes decreased blood flow and a fluid shift causing edema and inflammation. Extravascular effects consist of the constriction of extravascular smooth muscle causing laryngospasm and bronchospasm; other symptoms can include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Without prompt medical treatment, the body continues to a state of shock and eventually, death.TreatmentAnaphylactic shock typically has a sudden onset and can progress to death within minutes of treatment is not provided. Treatment varies based off if the patient is presenting with a
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK2mild or severe presentation. Early symptoms can include dizziness, itchiness, nausea, vomiting,