HD Prelim 2 Study Guide - Commonalities across all...

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Commonalities across all sensory-motor chapters There are a few topics which are similar across all the sensory / motor systems. The following are a few ideas that you should think about in relation to all of them. 1) Parallel Processing a) What is “parallel processing” in the nervous system i) Different attributes are processed in parallel and integrated at higher levels ii) Theme of the nervous system (1) i.e. somatosensory, motor b) For each system, think of an example of parallel processing i) Visual System (1) Each visual field is processed separately (2) Each eye is processed in separately (a) Ocular dominance columns in visual cortex (3) Color vs. black/white is processed separately (a) Cones and rods (4) Motion and object are processed separately (a) Dorsal – WHERE (b) Ventral- WHAT ii) Auditory System (1) Information is segregated and processed in parallel (a) Frequency (pitch)- tonotopic organization (b) Loudness (c) Location information (d) Other attributes of sound signal (i) What/where pathways? (2) Brain has all these attributes of the sound signal to interpret and integrate iii) Motor System (1) Prefrontal cortex: plans movement (2) Premotor cortex: organizes movement sequences (3) Primary motor cortex: produces specific movements (4) In the spinal cord (a) Different muscles and different types of movement have parallel pathways iv) Somatosensory System (1) Different pathways travel in parallel (a) Fine touch/pressure (b) Pain/temperature v) Smell vi) Taste 2) Topographic organization a) What does topographic organization mean? - 1 -
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i) Neural spatial representation of the body areas of the sensory world perceived by a sensory organ b) For each system, know how topographic organization is coded for that system i) Vision (1) Topographic representation on the LGN (a) Retinotopic maps on the thalamus (b) Part of location coding ii) Audition (1) Tonotopic representation: different frequencies at different locations of the basilar membrane iii) Motor (1) Homunculus representation of the body on the primary motor cortex; proportional to the amount of movement iv) Somatosensory (1) 4 somatosensory homunculus on the primary cortex (2) Areas with more touch receptors are larger v) Olfaction vi) Gustatory (1) Taste buds 3) Sensory receptors a) For each of the sensory systems (not motor) we discussed the receptors that transform the stimulus from the world into a neural signal. Know the sensory receptor(s) for each system, a little about the stimulus that is transforms, and, if discussed, how that transformation takes place. i) Vision (1) Photoreceptor cells convert light energy first into chemical energy and then into neural activity (a) When light strikes a photoreceptor, it triggers a series of chemical reactions that lead to a change in membrane potential. (b) This change in turn leads to a change in the release of neurotransmitter
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HD Prelim 2 Study Guide - Commonalities across all...

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