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Unformatted text preview: Neighboring Cultures that influenced The Greeks (and less directly Romans) 9/5/2008 Near East and Egypt Earliest to evolve complex and durable governing structures o City-state: permanent settlement controlling surrounding territory o Empire: artificial unification of multiple territories under single government Cultural achievements o Economics: specialization, trade o Records: monuments (statues, murals); literacy (Sumer 3400, Egypt 3100) o Arts & Sciences: most early advances Cultural Contact: Methodological issues Need for multiple, specific examples Parallel developments vs. influences o Example of step pyramids Direct and indirect influence o Mediating cultures; spread of stores and ideas Evidence of cross-cultural contact Columns: Egypt and Minoan Crete In addition to: o Written records o Artistic representations o Traded goods Evidence for influence of Near East and Egypt on European cultures Literature: themes, genres, characters, stories o Ex: flood stories in Gilgamesh (ca. 2500 BCE) and Hebrew Bible Material culture o Technology: crops and domestic animals, metallurgy, shipping...
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- Spring '08