Psy 4930 Test 3 - Psy 4930 Test 3 Direct social influences...

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Psy 4930 Test 3 Direct social influences o Active social agency- the other person participates in food delivery o Parents practice exposure and reward o This theory would predict that food preferences have strong correlations with families, but this is not true o “family paradox” parents transfer values rather than specific preferences o Inadvertent social agency the agent must be present but is not actively directing the outcome o We tend to eat what our friends eat o Rats will choose the flavor they smell on a demonstrator rat o Children want foods on the basis of social-affective context o Children don’t like hot foods, but are slowly introduced and with adult approval will eventually like o Alcohol is similar Food sharing o Evaluative condition o Evaluation of a food or flavor changes by pairing that food with a positive or negative event (smile) o Reciprocal altruism o Individuals or groups A and B mutually exchange food o Decreases variability in day-to-day food availability and keeps as many people alive as possible o Cooperative acquisition and mutualism o The hunter who makes the kills is designated the owner o The owner rewards non-owners o Expects that they will help him in the future o Tolerated theft o The owner (strong male) will tolerate some theft o Would consume a lot of time and energy to completely prevent or police o Many thieves will be females, this may be a way for the males to attract potential mates o Hunters will seek larger and more dangerous prey to attract women o Nepotism o More likely to share food with relatives than non relatives o Group selection o Group fitness should also be increased by the evolved social stragegies o The social norms of sharing reflect two opposing forces: gain from cooperation and losses from free riding o Psychological mechanisms that are needed to accomplish these behaviors: o Perceptual sensitivity to potential gains from cooperation, opportunities for free-riding, short and long term personal costs and benefits to following social norms and cooperative behavior
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o These involve cognitive abilities to remember events and faces, and to be able to engage in abstract reasoning and cognitive modeling or schemas of optimal outcomes given a variety of behavior choices o Motivational mechanisms to take advantage of gains through cooperation, to avoid being free rode upon, to take advantage of opportunities for free-riding, to negotiated social norms to maximize one’s own benefits, and to obey and enforce social norms o Patterns of thought about food: o Hua people believe that food carries a vital essence (nu) o It is crucial that we learn to avoid contaminated food o Rozin did a study putting a sterilized cockroach on the side of plate and people refused to eat the food even though there is no direct physical contact and no germs were involved o Optimal forging o Foraging is the patterns of food acquisition and use by individuals o What is optimal depends on: Availability Cost Preference
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2008 for the course PSY 4930 taught by Professor Rowland during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Psy 4930 Test 3 - Psy 4930 Test 3 Direct social influences...

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