March 4 - Today’s lecture Other Aspects of Intelligence...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s lecture Other Aspects of Intelligence Nature vs Nurture of Intelligence Exam Review 1 Emotional Intelligence The ability to perceive emotions The ability to understand emotions The ability to manage emotions The ability to use emotions 2 Intelligence and Creativity There is more to creativity than intelligence, although it correlates somewhat with intelligence. Expertise: A well developed knowledge base. Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways. Adventuresome Personality: Seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. Intrinsic Motivation: Motivated to be creative from within. A Creative Environment: Creativity blooms in creative and supportive environment. 3 Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Increased concentration of neurons in areas of the frontal lobe Gray matter concentration in people with high intelligence. 4 Brain Function Studies of brain functioning show that people who score high on intelligence tests perceive stimuli faster, retrieve information from memory quickly, and show faster brain response times. People with higher intelligence respond correctly faster to the above question. 5 What is giftedness? 6 QuickTimeª and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. 7 Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence No other topic in psychology is so passionately followed as the one that asks the question, “Is intelligence due to genetics or the environment?” 8 Genetic Influences Studies of twins, family members and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence. 9 Adoption Studies Verbal ability correlation between children and parents. 10 Relative contribution of genes and evironment on IQ monozygotic (identical) twins raised separately are highly similar in IQ (0.86) dizygotic (fraternal) twins raised together (0.6) adoptive siblings (~0.0) 11 Heritability of IQ 12 Heritability of IQ The proportions of IQ variance attributable to genes and environment vary with socioeconomic status. In impoverished families, 60% of the variance in IQ is accounted for by the shared environment, and the contribution of genes was close to zero. 2003 study by Eric Turkheimer, Andreana Haley, Mary Waldron, Brian D'Onofrio, Irving I. Gottesman 13 Early Intervention Effects Environment can create dramatic differences in intelligence Romanian orphans with minimal human interaction had delayed development. 14 Does faster mean better? Faster speed of processing linked to higher IQ Faster development not necessarily linked to higher IQ 15 QuickTimeª and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. 16 Group Differences in intelligence Test Scores Why do groups differ in intelligence? And how can we make sense of these differences? 17 Ethnic Similarities and Differences To discuss this issue we begin by two disturbing but agreed upon facts: Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores. High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income. 18 Racial (Group) Differences If we look at racial differences, on average intelligence, white Americans score higher than black Americans (Avery and others, 1994). European New Zealanders score higher than native New Zealanders (Braden, 1994). White-Americans Black-Americans Average IQ = 100 Average IQ = 85 Hispanic Americans 19 Reasons to believe these differences are NOT genetic The races are remarkably alike genetically. Intelligence is greatly affected by environment- on average just as much as by genes. We know that there are big disparity in educational environment in the US today (Kozol). 20 Difference between blacks and whites Over the course of high school gap widens Over the course of college gap closes Difference due to inequality vs equality of environments 21 Stereotype Threat Stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. This phenomenon appears in some instances in intelligence testing among African-American and among women of all colors. 22 Conclusions Intelligence- can be thought of in many different ways Always reflects a combination of aptitude and experience 23 Exam Review 24 Work and Sex Work- attitudes, interviewers, leadership styles, predictors of success Effects of sex hormones Condoms + teen sex How they affect behavior What they do and don’t protect you from Causes of Homosexuality Need to belong 25 Genes, environment and evolution Heritability of personality Evolutionary psychology Individualist vs. Collectivist culture 26 Intelligence Intelligence- g vs multiple intelligences, Gardner and sternberg Intelligence and heritability Stereotype threat Emotional intelligence 27 ...
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