Unformatted text preview: Welcome to Introduction to Psychology
Ann Turner Phillips, Ph.D 1 What is psychology? What are we going to study this semester? What are the requirements for this course? Psychology as a science 2 What is psychology? Cocktail party impression http://www.photovault.com http://www.nbc.com Dr. Crane (radioshrink) Psychic (Ball gazing)
3 PROGRAM AREAS Biopsychology Clinical Psychology Cognition & Perception Developmental Psychology Personality & Social Contexts Social PsychologyEducation & Psychology Social Work & Psychology Women's Studies & Psychology 4 Prescientific Psychology
Rene Descartes (15961650) Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul (mind) body separation but speculated on how the immaterial mind and the physical body communicated. http://www.spacerad.com http://ocw.mit.edu
5 Prescientific Psychology
John Locke (16321704)
biografieonline.it/img/bio/John_Locke.jpg Locke held that the mind is a tabula rasa or blank sheet at birth and experience writes on it.
6 Psychological Science is Born
Structuralism Titchner (18671927) Wundt and Titchner studied the elements (atoms) of the mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
7 Wundt (18321920) Psychological Science is Born
Functionalism Influenced by Darwin, William James established the school of functionalism, opposing structuralism. 8 James (18421910) Psychological Science is Born
The Unconscious Mind Freud (18561939) Jung (18751961) Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior. http://loeillet.chez-alice.fr http://ot.re.kr
9 Psychological Science Develops
Behaviorism Skinner (19041990) Watson (1913) and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology. Watson (18781958) 10 Cognitive Revolution 1967 Computer metaphor Other areas keeping thinking alive 11 Psychology's Subfields: Applied Data: APA 1997 12 Psychology's Subfields: Research Data: APA 1997 13 QuickTimed and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. 14 The Need for Psychological Science
Intuition & Common Sense Many of us believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers about human nature. Although intuition and common sense may aid queries, they are not free of error.
15 Limits of Intuition
Personal interviewers tend to be overconfident of their "gut feelings" about job applicants.
Taxi/ Getty Images
16 Hindsight Bias
Hindsight Bias is the "Iknewitallalong" phenomenon. We tend to believe, after learning about an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. We knew that the dot.com stocks would plummet, only after they did. 17 Overconfidence
We tend to think we know more than we actually do. How long do you think would it take to unscramble these anagrams? Anagram WREAT WATER ENTRY BARGE People said about 10 seconds. On average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978). ETYRN GRABE 18 Psychological Science
How can we differentiate between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions? 2. The science of psychology can help make these examined conclusions, which lead to our understanding what people feel, think, act, as they do!
1. 19 The Scientific Attitude
The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (humbleness to accept when wrong). 20 Scientific Method
Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations. 21 Theory
Theory is an explanation that integrates principles, organizes and predicts behaviors or events. For example, low selfesteem contributes to depression. 22 Hypothesis
Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often induced by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. People with low selfesteem are apt to feel more depressed. 23 Research Observations
Research would require us to administer tests of self esteem and depression to people. Individuals who score low on selfesteem measures and high on depression tests, would confirm our hypothesis. 24 FAQ
Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior. 25 FAQ
Q2. Does behavior depend on one's culture? Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same. Ami Vitale/ Getty Images 26 FAQ
Q3. Does behavior vary with gender? Ans: Yes. Biology determines our sex, and then culture further bends the genders. Yet in many ways women and men are similarly human. 27 FAQ
Q4. Why do psychologists study animals? Ans: Study of animals gives us understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans. 28 D. Shapiro, Wildlife Conservation Society FAQ
Q5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals? Ans: Yes. To gain insights to devastating and fatal diseases. All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals. 29 FAQ
Q6. Is it ethical to experiment on people? Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm that is beyond normal levels encountered in daily life can be carried out. 30 FAQ
Q7. Is psychology free of value judgments? Ans: No. Psychology emerges from people who subscribe to a set of values and judgments. 31 Roger Shepard FAQ
Q8. Is psychology potentially dangerous? Ans: It can be, but it is not. The purpose of psychology is to help humanity with its problems, like war, hunger, prejudice, crime, family dysfunction, etc. 32 About this course Topics covered and not covered Course requirements How to get the most out of this course 33 Student Assignments and Evaluation 3 Exams (50 points each) Research paper Discussion Section Participation 150 points 40 points 40 points Experiment Participation Requirement: ([email protected]) 0 points (Pass/Fail) 34 How can I get extra points? Submit questions the night before a lecture Submit test question for reviews 35 Section I- What makes us tick?
January 8 Psychology Introduction and Overview: Module 2 Thinking critically with psychological science January 10 History and Methods: Module 3 Research Strategies: How Psychologists ask and answer questions January 15: Module 5 The Brain and Module 46 Contemporary research on personality Janaury 17: Module 55 Social thinking and Module 56 Social influence January 22: Module 38 Introduction to emotion and Module 40 Experienced emotion January 24: Module 29 Thinking January 29: Module 21 Classical conditioning and Module 24 Introduction to memory January 31:Module 25 Encoding: getting information in and Module 28 Forgetting, memory construction and memory improvement Febuary 5 exam 1
36 Section II- What makes us who we are?
Febuary 7: Module 6 Behavior genetics and evolutionary psychology Febuary 12: Module 37 Motivation at work Febuary 14: Module 36 Sexual motivation and the need to belong Febuary 19: Module 7 Environmental influences Febuary 21: Module 31 Introduction to intelligence March 4: Module 33 Genetic and environmental Influences on intelligence March 6: Exam 2 37 Section III- Understanding health and dysfunction
March 11: Module 41 Stress and illness and Module 42 Coping with stress March 13: Module 35 Hunger and Module 43 Modifying illness related behaviors March 18: Module 18 Waking and sleep rhythms March 20: Module 20 Drugs and consciousness March 25: Module 48 Anxiety disorders March 27: Module 50 Mood disorders April 1: Module 51 Schizophrenia April 3: Module 52 The psychological therapies April 8: Module 53 Evaluating therapies April 10: Module 54 The biomedical therapies April 15: exam 3 38 Themes for this course Mind-Brain connection Thinking Critically to become more conscious about our everyday actions Relationship between Genes and the Environment How to be happy 39 How to do well in (and make the most of) college courses Relationship with Professors Understanding how course work relates to larger goals How to study 40 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Description The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation Correlation and Causation Illusory Correlation Perceiving Order in Random Events Correlation 41 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Evaluating Therapies Independent and Dependent Variables Describing Data Making Inferences
42 Statistical Reasoning Description
Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. Susan Kuklin/ Photo Researchers Is language uniquely human? 43 Case Study
Clinical Study A clinical study is a form of case study where the therapist investigates the problems associated with a client. http://behavioralhealth.typepad.com
A technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people. http://www.lynnefeatherstone.org
Wording can change the results of a survey. Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid) 46 Survey
False Consensus Effect A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. 47 Survey Random Sampling
From a population, if each member has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, we call that a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are spurious. The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
48 Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior of animals in the wild, to recording selfseating patterns in lunch rooms in a multiracial school constitute naturalistic observation. Courtesy of Gilda Morelli 49 Descriptive Methods
Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation all describe behaviors. 50 Statistics How does understanding statistics help us in our lives? Anecdotal vs statistically reliable Random sampling and Bias Correlation and causation 51 Correlation
When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.
Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) Correlation coefficient r = + 0.37
Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of relationship between two variables. 52 Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points generated by values of two variables. The slope of points depicts the direction, and the amount of scatter the strength of relationship. 53 Scatterplots Perfect negative correlation (1.00) No relationship (0.00) Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation, and the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables.
Data showing height and temperament in people. 55 Scatterplot
Scatterplot showing relationship between height and temperament in people with a moderate positive correlation of +0.63. 56 Correlation and Causation or 57 Illusory Correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists. Parents conceive children after adoption.
Conceive Adopt Do not adopt Confirming evidence Disconfirming evidence Do not conceive Disconfirming evidence Confirming evidence
58 Michael Newman Jr./ Photo Edit Order in Random Events
Given random data we look for order, for meaningful patterns. Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960. 59 Order in Random Events
Given large number of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order.
Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco Chronicle Angelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day.
Exploring Cause and Effect
Like other sciences, experimentation forms the backbone of research in psychology. Experiments isolate causes and their effects. 61 Exploring Cause & Effect
Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us while keeping other factors under (2) control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. 62 Independent Variable
Independent Variable is a factor, manipulated by the experimenter, and whose effect is being studied. For example, to study the effect of breast feeding on intelligence. Breast feeding is the independent variable. 63 Dependent Variable
Dependent Variable is a factor that may change in response to independent variable. In psychology it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding on intelligence. Intelligence is the dependent variable. 64 Evaluating Therapies
In evaluating drug therapies it is important to keep the patients and experimenter's assistants blind to which patients got real treatment and which placebo. 65 Evaluating Therapies
Assigning participants to experimental (Breastfed) and control (formulafed) conditions by random assignment minimizes preexisting differences between the two groups. 66 Experimentation
A summary of steps during experimentation. 67 Comparison
Below is a comparison of different research methods. 68 Statistical Reasoning
Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data and let us see what the unaided eye misses. Composition of ethnicity in urban locales 69 Describing Data
Meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation can lead to incorrect conclusions. 70 Measures of Central Tendency
Mode: The most frequently occurring score in a distribution. Mean: The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by their number. Median: The middle score in a rankordered distribution. 71 Measures of Central Tendency
A Skewed Distribution 72 Measures of Variation
Range: The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. 73 Standard Deviation 74 Making Inferences
A statistical statement of how likely an obtained result occurred by experimental manipulation or by chance. 75 Making Inferences
When is an Observed Difference Reliable?
1. 2. 3. Representative samples are better than biased samples. Less variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones. More cases are better than fewer cases. 76 Making Inferences
When is a Difference Significant?
When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large, we say the difference has statistical significance. For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent. 77 How can understanding psychology as a science enhance our lives? Understand ourselves and our interactions with others Have more choices and more control Take advantage of new findings and discoveries 78 ...
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- Spring '08