Week 4 Learning and Memory

Week 4 Learning and Memory - Learning and Memory Division...

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1 Division of these terms reflects the  history of psychology Learning and Memory
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2 Some kinds of learning are easy  Some kinds of learning are very  difficult Learning
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3 Some kinds of memory are  automatic  Some kinds of memory are effortful Learning
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4 QuickTime( and a Cinepak Codec by Radius decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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5 Learning in Context VS Decontextualized learning
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6 How Do We Learn? We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect  events that occur in sequence.  Learning by association is adaptive
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7 Ideas a of classical conditioning originate from old  philosophical theories, however it was a Russian  physiologist  Ivan Pavlov  who elucidated classical  conditioning. His work became seminal for later  behaviorists like  John Watson  and  B. F. Skinner. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Sovfoto
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8 Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning food (Unconditioned Stimulus,  US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response,  UR). The tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
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9 Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, neutral stimulus (tone) and US  (food) are paired resulting in salivation (UR). After  conditioning neutral stimulus (now Conditioned  Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned  Response, CR)
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10 QuickTimeh and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see tHis picture.
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11 Acquisition The initial stage in classical conditioning. during  which association between a neutral stimulus and a  US takes place. 1. Neutral stimulus needs to come before the US  for conditioning to occur (most cases). 1. The time between the two stimuli should be  about half a second.
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12 QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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13 Extinction When a US (food) does not follow a CS (tone) CR  (salivation) starts to decrease and at some point goes  extinct.
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14 Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation)  spontaneously recovers and if CS (tone) persists  alone becomes extinct again.
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15 Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli  similar to CS is called  generalization . Pavlov  conditioned the dog’s  salivation (CR) by using  miniature vibrators (CS) to the  thigh. Salivation decreased as  the stimulation moved further  from the thigh.
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16 Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination  is the learned ability to distinguish  between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a  US.
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17 Cognitive Processes Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors  of various animals could be reduced to mindless  mechanisms. However, later behaviorists suggested that animals 
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2008 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Schreier during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Week 4 Learning and Memory - Learning and Memory Division...

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