Unformatted text preview: Themes for this course Mind-Brain connection Thinking Critically to become more conscious about our everyday actions Relationship between Genes and the Environment How we can use the frontal lobes to overcome the legacy of evolution which gives us an environmental mismatch How to be happy
1 How to do well in (and make the most of) college courses Relationship with Professors Understanding how course work relates to larger goals How to study 2 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Description The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation Correlation and Causation Illusory Correlation Perceiving Order in Random Events Correlation 3 Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Experimentation Statistical Reasoning 4 Description
Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. Susan Kuklin/ Photo Researchers Is language uniquely human? 5 Case Study
Clinical Study A clinical study is a form of case study where the therapist investigates the problems associated with a client. http://behavioralhealth.typepad.com
A technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people. http://www.lynnefeatherstone.org
Wording can change the results of a survey. Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid) 8 Survey
False Consensus Effect A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. 9 Survey Random Sampling
From a population, if each member has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, we call that a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are spurious. The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
10 Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior of animals in the wild, to recording selfseating patterns in lunch rooms in a multiracial school constitute naturalistic observation. Courtesy of Gilda Morelli 11 Descriptive Methods
Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation all describe behaviors. 12 Statistics How does understanding statistics help us in our lives? Anecdotal vs statistically reliable Random sampling and Bias Correlation and causation 13 Correlation
When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.
Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) Correlation coefficient r = + 0.37
Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of relationship between two variables. 14 Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points generated by values of two variables. The slope of points depicts the direction, and the amount of scatter the strength of relationship. 15 Scatterplots Perfect negative correlation (1.00) No relationship (0.00) Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation, and the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables.
Data showing height and temperament in people. 17 Scatterplot
Scatterplot showing relationship between height and temperament in people with a moderate positive correlation of +0.63. 18 Correlation and Causation or 19 Illusory Correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists. Parents conceive children after adoption.
Conceive Adopt Do not adopt Confirming evidence Disconfirming evidence Do not conceive Disconfirming evidence Confirming evidence
20 Michael Newman Jr./ Photo Edit Order in Random Events
Given random data we look for order, for meaningful patterns. Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960. 21 Order in Random Events
Given large number of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order.
Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco Chronicle Angelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day.
Exploring Cause and Effect
Like other sciences, experimentation forms the backbone of research in psychology. Experiments isolate causes and their effects. 23 Exploring Cause & Effect
Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us while keeping other factors under (2) control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. 24 Independent Variable
Independent Variable is a factor, manipulated by the experimenter, and whose effect is being studied. For example, to study the effect of breast feeding on intelligence. Breast feeding is the independent variable. 25 Dependent Variable
Dependent Variable is a factor that may change in response to independent variable. In psychology it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding on intelligence. Intelligence is the dependent variable. 26 Statistical Reasoning
Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data and let us see what the unaided eye misses. Composition of ethnicity in urban locales 27 Describing Data
Meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation can lead to incorrect conclusions. 28 Measures of Central Tendency
A Skewed Distribution 29 Measures of Variation
Range: The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. 30 Making Inferences
When is an Observed Difference Reliable?
1. 2. 3. Representative samples are better than biased samples. Less variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones. More cases are better than fewer cases. 31 Making Inferences
When is a Difference Significant?
When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large, we say the difference has statistical significance. For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent. 32 How can understanding psychology as a science enhance our lives? Understand ourselves and our interactions with others Have more choices and more control Take advantage of new findings and discoveries 33 ...
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