Angular size of moon= . 548 deg Angular size of the sun= . 531 deg Orbital radius of moon= 363,000 km Nicholas Copernicus- 1473-1543- Copernican model. DeRevolutionibus Orbium Coelestium sun in center, established order of planets, Earth spun, explains retrograde motion, only ever gave pamphlets to friends. Giordano Bruno- Espoused Copernicus, stellar sphere just a construct. Occam’s Razor- simpler model better. Models-science as a thought experiment- celestial objects as perfect, immutable –Pythagoreans. Spheres spin at constant speed. Geocentric model- Earth as center. Aristotle, 350 BC. 55 celestial spheres outermost sphere fixed in sphere. Cannonball does not always hit the ground. 8km/s is the speed to orbit the earth. Mass of cannonball does not effect orbit. Eccentricity defined as c/a. Pluto’s orbit is fastest at its perihelion. Slowest at the aphelion. Haley’s comet spends most of its time at the aphelion. Jupiter; 5 AU=11 years. P = the cubed root of r cubed. a= p raised to the 2/3
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deg Orbital radius, deg Angular size, spheres outermost sphere