LS 15 Problem Set 4 - Garing 1 LS 15 Problem Set 4 Altruism...

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LS 15 Problem Set 4 Altruism, Inclusive Fitness, and Kin Selection 1. When the male bluegill fish noticed the presence of the cuckold males near their eggs, their paternal certainty decreased, since the cuckold males could have potentially fertilized the eggs. The male bluegill fishes egg-guarding effort were reduced in response to the presence of a predatory fish because it would not benefit the males to guard eggs that were unrelated to them. In contrast, a bluegill males’ efforts of guarding its hatched offspring were unchanged because, these males can be certain that their offspring are related to them due to a chemical in their urine. This paternal certainty led to the male’s parental investment in their offspring because in would benefit them to protect individuals directly related to them. 2. Parental investment is increased or left unchanged if paternal certainty is greater and is decreased if paternal uncertainty is greater as shown in both experiments. In experiment 1, egg

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