Sociology topic 3 - (1 Society is like an organism…it is...

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Sociology topic 3 1) Research Methods a) Basic Terms i) Concept ii) Variable iii) Correlation iv) Cause (1) Criteria for establishing cause: (a) Correlation (b) Time priority b) Basic Methods i) Observation ii) Experiment iii) Survey c) History of sociology i) Auguste Comte (1798-1857) (1) “Founder” (2) Advocated positivism (a) Argued that abstract laws govern the relationships among phenomena in the world (3) Social statics (a) Aspects of social life that have to do with order, stability, and social organization (4) social dynamics (a) Processes of social life that pattern institutional development and have to do with social change ii) Harriet Martineau (1802-1879) (1) 1 st book on research methods
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(a) How to Observe Manners and Morals (2) Study of society reps a separate scientific field (3) Did comparitve studies (a) b/w U.S. and England. (b) Determined that basic moral values of the young American nation shaped its key institutional arrangments (4) Promoted womens rights iii) Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
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Unformatted text preview: (1) Society is like an organism…it is a system (2) Believe in social evolution (a) Social darwinism (b) Compared Survival of fittest to the social world (c) Felt gov’t shouldn’t be involved in natural processes going on in society iv) Karl Marx (1818-1883) (1) Economic inequality (2) Class conflict (a) Society is divided into those who own the means of producing wealth and those who do not (3) Social change (4) Dialectical materialism (a) Belief that development depends on the clash of contradictions and the subsequent creation of new, more advanced structures (5) Economic determinist v) Emile Durkheim (1858-1916) (1) Social solidarity: mechanical vs. organic (2) Social facts (a) Aspects of social life that cannot be explained in terms of the biological or mental characteristics of the individual vi) Max Weber (1864-1920) (1) “verstehen” (2) Ideal type (a) Bureaucracy (3) “value free” sociology...
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