Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Experimental Plans...

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Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Experimental Plans STAT 332 Spring 2017
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Introduction An experiment can be defined as a test or series of tests in which purposeful changes are made to the input variables of a process or system so that we may observe and identify the reasons for changes that may be observed in the output response. Literally, an experiment is a test. STAT 332 Spring 2017
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Experimentation plays an important role in technology commercialization and product realization activities, which consist of new product design and formulation, manufacturing process development and process improvement. The objective, in many cases, may be to develop a robust process. In another word, a process that is minimally affected by external sources of variability. A well-designed experiment is important because the results and conclusions that can be drawn from the experiment depend on the manner in which the data were collected. STAT 332 Spring 2017
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General model of a process Process Inputs Uncontrollable factors ? 1 ,? 2 , … Output ? Controllable factors ? 1 ,? 2 ,… In general, experiments are used to study the performance of processes and systems. We can usually visualize the process as a combination of operations, machines, methods, people and other resources that transform some inputs into an output that has one or more observable response variables, y . Some of the process variables and material properties are controllable, whereas some are not. STAT 332 Spring 2017
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A personal example When I was a student, I always look for the most effective ways to study in order to get a better score. Some of the factors that I think may be influence my score, are as follow: 1. Time spent studying 2. Studying in the DP or the DC library 3. Studying alone or with friends 4. Listening to music or not while studying 5. Drinking water or drinking beer while studying 6. Studying during cold or hot day Obviously, many other factors could be considered, but let’s assume that these are the primary factors of interest. Based on experience, factor 6 can be ignored. STAT 332 Spring 2017
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Terminologies Factor A single explanatory variate that will be changed on each unit in the sample E.g. Location Factor levels The set values assigned to any factor in the plan E.g. Location: DP or DC (2 levels) Treatment A combination of the levels of the factors that can be applied to a unit E.g. 2 5 = 32 treatments in the motivating example STAT 332 Spring 2017
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Types of factors Quantitative A variable that contains measured numerical values with measurement units E.g. Time spent studying (in minutes, hours, or days) Qualitative A variable that names categories with words or numerals E.g. Types of drinks: Water could be labelled as Drink 1, Beer could be labelled as Drink 2.
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