chapter 22 - Charles Darwin The Origin of Species Evolution...

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Charles Darwin- The Origin of Species Evolution - descent with modification; can be viewed as a pattern & a process o The pattern of evolutionary change is revealed by data from many scientific disciplines, including bio, geology, physics, & chemistry o The process of evolution consists of the mechanisms that produce the observed pattern of change- they represent natural causes of the natural phenomena we observe Aristotle viewed species as fixed (unchanging). Through his observations of nature, he recognized certain “affinities” among organisms- he concluded that life-forms could be arranged on a ladder, or scale, of increasing complexity, called the scala naturae ”scale of nature” o This was consistent with the Old Testament, claiming species were individually designed by God & therefore perfect Linnaeus sought to classify life’s diversity “for the greater glory of God” o Developed the two-part, or binomial, format for naming species (Linnaean system)that was a nested classification system, grouping similar species into increasingly general categories similar species are grouped in the same genus, similar genera are grouped in the same family (they were assigned to the pattern of their creation, not their evolutionary kinship) Fossils - remains/traces of organisms from the past New layers of sediment cover older ones & compress them into super-imposed layers of rock called strata Erosion may carve through upper (younger) strata, revealing deeper (older) strata that had been buried Paleontology - study of fossils, developed by Georges Cuvier o The older the stratum, the more dissimilar its fossils were to current life-forms & from one layer to the next, new species appeared while others disappeared o
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