Chapter 8 (1) - Chapter 8 Human Development Chapter Eight...

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Chapter 8: Human Development Chapter Eight Goals 1. To understand theories of development. 2. To understand prenatal development and infancy. 3. To understand early and middle childhood. 3. To understand adolescent development. 4. To understand adult development. 5. To understand later adult development. Goal: To understand development. 1. What is developmental psychology? (Answer this question without using the word Development ) The scientific study of how humans grow, mature, and change throughout the life span Goal: To understand theories of cognitive development. 2. Each stage involves a higher level of cognitive skill or reasoning. There is also a major developmental acquisition at each stage. Complete the table below describing each stage and the reasoning or thinking that evolves within that stage. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Stage Description of Stage and its Major Developmental Acquisition Sensorimotor ( birth to 2 years) Describe the characteristics of children’s thinking at this stage. Infants experience the world through their sensed, actions, and body movements. At the end of this stage, toddlers develop the concept of object permanence and can mentally represent objects in their absence. Irv Lichtman, Psychology Instructor Fall 2016/Spring 2017 1
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Describe Object Permanence The realization that objects continues to exist, even when they can no longer be perceived. Preoperational (2 to 7 years) Describe the characteristics of children’s thinking at this stage. Children are able to represent objects and events mentally with words and images. They can engage in imaginary play (pretend), and exhibit signs of symbolic function, using one object to represent another. Their thinking is egocentric. Describe Egocentric Thinking (egocentrism) refers to a child’s inability to differentiate between self and other. More specifically, it is the inability to untangle subjective schemas from objective reality; an inability to understand or assume any perspective other than their own. Concrete Operational (7 to 11 years Describe the characteristics of children’s thinking at this stage. Children at this stage become able to think logically in concrete situations. They acquire the concepts of conservation and reversibility, can order objects in a series, and can classify them according to multiple dimensions. Describe Conservation The concept that a given quantity of matter remains the same despite being rearranged or changes in appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away. Describe Reversibility The realization that any change in the shape, position, order of matter can be reversed mentally. Formal Operational (12 yrs +) Describe the characteristics of children’s thinking at this stage such as hypothetico-deductive thinking, naive idealism, imaginary audience, and personal fable.
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