worksheets_chapter_4.2017 (2) - Honors Chemistry 2016-2017...

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Honors Che mis t ry 2016-2017 WS 4.1 Dalton’s Theory of Atomic S t r u c t u r e 1) Distinguish between the terms atom and molecule. 2) What distinguishes an atom of nitrogen from an atom of oxygen? 3) Cyclopropane, a very effective anesthetic, contains the elements carbon and hydrogen combined in a ratio of 1.00 grams of hydrogen to 6.00 g of carbon. If a given sample of cyclopropane was found to contain 24.0 g of hydrogen, how many grams of carbon would it contain? (144) 4) Three samples of a solid substance composed of elements X and Y were prepared. The first was found to contain 4.31 g X and 7.69 g Y; the second was composed of 35.9% X and 64.1% Y; it was observed that 0.718 g X reacted with Y to form 2.00 g of the third sample. Show how these demonstrate the law of definite proportions (also known as law of constant composition). 5) Two samples of Freon (a coolant used in refrigerators and air conditioners) were analyzed. In one sample, 1.00 g C was found to be combined with 6.22 g F and 11.67 g Cl. In the second sample, 2.00 g C was found to be combined with 12.66 g F and 23.34 g Cl. a. What are the ratios of the masses of carbon to fluorine, carbon to chlorine and fluorine to chlorine in each of these samples. b. Do the data support the law of definite proportions (aka definite proportions)? Explain your answer. 6) Which law (if any) is illustrated by the following statements: a. When copper (I) oxide decomposes, the total mass of the copper and oxygen formed equals the mass of copper oxide decomposed. b. Analysis of water in the rain collected in the Amazon rain forest and of that formed in a test tube by combining hydrogen and oxygen gives the same value for the percent oxygen. 1
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Honors Che mis t ry 2016-2017 7) Which law does the following statement illustrate? a. A sealed bag of popcorn has the same mass before and after it is put in a microwave oven (assume no breaks in the bag after it has been put into the microwave oven). b. A teaching assistant writes “highly improbable” in a student’s report that states that his unknown is S 2.1 O 2.7. 8) Mercury (II) oxide, a red powder, can be decomposed by heating to produce liquid mercury and oxygen gas. When a sample of this compound is decomposed, 3.87 g of oxygen and 48.43 g of mercury are produced. In a second experiment, 15.68 g of mercury is allowed to react with an excess of oxygen; 16.93 g of red mercury (II) oxide is produced. Show that these results are or are not consistent with the law of definite proportions (constant composition). 2
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Honors Che mis t ry ` 2016-2017 WS 4.2 Symbols and Is o t opes 1) Oxygen consists of three different , each having eight protons but different numbers of neutrons. 2) What is the name of the element represented by each of the following atomic symbols: a. Ne b. Zn c. Ag d. Mg 3) Give the atomic symbol for each of the following elements: a. b. sulfur c. iron d.
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