Lecture_09_10+Game+Playing+%2B+MinMax-AlphaBeta - Game...

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Game Playing & Adversarial Search LECTURE # 09 & 10 5/31/17 SPRING 2017 FAST – NUCES, FAISALABAD CAMPUS Zain Iqbal [email protected]
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In which we examine the problems that arise when we try to plan ahead in a world where other agents are planning against us . 2
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3 Game Playing Why do AI researchers study game playing? 1. It’s a good reasoning problem, formal and nontrivial. 2. Direct comparison with humans and other computer programs is easy.
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Why study games Clear criteria for success Offer an opportunity to study problems involving {hostile, adversarial, competing} agents. Historical reasons Fun Interesting, hard problems 4
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Game-Playing Agent environment agent ? sensors actuators Environment 5
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6 What Kinds of Games? Mainly games of strategy with the following characteristics: 1. Sequence of moves to play 2. Rules that specify possible moves 3. Rules that specify a payment for each move 4. Objective is to maximize your payment
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7 Kinds of Games Deterministic Turn-taking 2-player Zero-sum Perfect information
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Typical case 2-person game Players alternate moves Zero-sum : one player’s loss is the other’s gain Perfect information : both players have access to complete information about the state of the game. No information is hidden from either player. No chance (e.g., using dice) involved Examples: Tic-Tac-Toe, Checkers, Chess, Go, Nim, Othello Not: Bridge, Solitaire, Backgammon, ... 8
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Types of games perfect information imperfect information deterministic chance 9
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Types of games chess, checkers, go, othello backgammon, monopoly battleship Kriegspiel bridge, poker, scrabble perfect information imperfect information deterministic chance 10
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11 Game Playing Playing games have always been an attraction of computers, and will probably always be so. Action games where you charge around blowing everything up are one type of game, but we are more interested in this course in examining the more thoughtful games, such as chess , noughts and crosses and the game of Nim .
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