Chapter 9 The Gaseous State

# Chapter 9 The Gaseous State - CHAPTER 9 THE GASES STATE PN...

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CHAPTER 9: THE GASES STATE PN. NURUL IZZA TAIB

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q Substances that exist as gases & Gas pressure q The Gas Laws: Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, Gay- Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law q Density Calculations and Molar mass determination q Reaction Stoichiometry involving gases q Dalton’s Law of partial pressures q Graham’s Law of Diffusion and Effusion q Deviation from Ideal gas behavior (VDW eq) Learning Outcome
SUBSTANCES THAT EXIST AS GASES q We live at the bottom of an ocean of air whose composition by volume is roughly 78% N 2 , 21% O 2 and 1% other gases, including CO 2 q Generally, focus on substances that exist as gases under normal atmospheric conditions, which are defined as 25 o C and 1 atmosphere (atm) pressure q The elements that are gases under normal atm conditions are H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 & Cl 2 – exist as gases diatomic molecules

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¨ Ozone (O 3 ) is also a gas at room temperature q All the elements in Group 8, the noble gases are monoatomic gases: He, He, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn q Ionic compounds do not exist as gases at normal condition, because cations and anions in an ionic solid are held together by very strong electrostatic forces Example: § Under normal conditions, NaCl melts at rather high temperature of 801 o C. § In order to boil it, we would have to raise the temperature above 1000 o C
q The behavior of molecular compounds is more varied q Examples: CO, CO 2 , HCl, NH 3 and CH 4 – are gases q but the majority of molecular compounds are liquids or solids at room temperature q However, on heating they are converted to gases much more easily than ionic compounds

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Elements Compounds H 2 HF N 2 HCl O 2 HBr O 3 HI F 2 CO Cl 2 CO 2 He NH 3 Ne NO Ar NO 2 Kr N 2 O Xe SO 2 Rn H 2 S Some substances found as gases at 1 atm and 25 o C

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General Properties of Gases q Gases assume the volume and shape of their container q Most compressible of the states of matter q Mix evenly and completely when confined to the same container q Lower densities than liquids and solids
Properties of Gases You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties: 1. Pressure 2. Volume 3. Amount (moles) 4. Temperature

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Pressure Pressure is defined as the force the gas exerts on a given area of the container in which it is contained. The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal, Pa. • If you’ve ever inflated a tire, you’ve probably made a pressure measurement in pounds (force) per square inch (area).

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EXERCISE 1 1. The pressure outside a jet plane flying at high altitude falls considerably below standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, the air inside the cabin must be pressurized to protect the passengers. What is the pressure in atmospheres in the cabin if the barometer reading is 688 mmHg ?
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