Walls of Constantinople - According to tradition the city...

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According to tradition, the city was founded as Byzantium by Greek colonists from Megara , led by the eponymous Byzas , around 658 BC. [1] At the time the city consisted of a small region around an acropolis , located on the easternmost hill (corresponding to the modern site of the Topkapı Palace ). According to the late Byzantine Patria of Constantinople , ancient Byzantium was enclosed by a small wall, which began on the northern edge of the acropolis, extended west to the Tower of Eugenios, then went south and west towards the Strategion and the Baths of Achilles, continued south to the area known in Byzantine times as Chalkoprateia, and then turned, in the area of the Hagia Sophia , in a loop towards the northeast, crossed the regions known as Topoi and Arcadianae and reached the sea at the later quarter of Mangana. This wall was protected by 27 towers, and had at least two landward gates, one which survived to become known as the Arch of Urbicius, and one where the Milion monument was later located. On the seaward side, the wall was much lower. [2] Although the author of the Patria asserts that this wall dated to the time of Byzas, the French researcher Raymond Janin thinks it more likely that it reflects the situation after the city was rebuilt by the Spartan general Pausanias , who conquered the city in 479 BC. This wall is known to have been repaired, utilising tomb stones, under the leadership of a certain Leo in 340 BC, against an attack by Philip II of Macedon . [3] Byzantium was relatively unimportant during the early Roman period. Contemporaries described it as wealthy, well peopled and well fortified, but this affluence came to an end due to its support for Pescennius Niger (r. 193–194) in his war against Septimius Severus (r. 193–211). According to the account of Cassius Dio ( Roman History , 75.10– 14 ), the city held out against Severan forces for three years, until 196, with its inhabitants resorting even to throwing bronze statues to the besiegers when they ran
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