Petroleum facts - Petroleum has mostly been recovered by...

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Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare). Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures) have been completed. [8] [9] It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation , into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals . [10] Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, [11] and it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. Concern over the depletion of the earth's finite reserves of oil, and the effect this would have on a society dependent on it, is a concept known as peak oil . The use of fossil fuels, such as petroleum, will have a negative impact on Earth's biosphere, damaging ecosystems through events such as oil spills and releasing a range of pollutants into the air including ground-level ozone and sulfur dioxide from sulfur impurities in fossil fuels. The burning of fossil fuels plays the major role in the current episode of global warming . Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, and is now important across society, including in economy, politics and technology. The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine , the rise in commercial aviation , and the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry, particularly the synthesis of plastics, fertilizers, solvents, adhesives and pesticides. More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus , asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon ; there were oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and a pitch spring on Zacynthus . [14] Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus , one of the tributaries of the Euphrates . Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China.
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