Litotes_Antithesis_Hypophora_Exercises (4)

Litotes_Antithesis_Hypophora_Exercises (4) - RIICTORICAL...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: RIICTORICAL DEVICES: 19 A Handbook and Activities for Student \Nrilcrs Litotes: What you'll learn in this section isn't bad. Litotes, similar to understatement; emphasizes its point by using a word site to the condition. For example, rather than say, “The trip across the mountain was a hard journey, " we may say, “The trip was no easy journey. " Due to the unexpectedness ofthe latter sentence, it can have more force and power than the former. Mere understatement would have the sentence read, “The journey was easy." The difference lies in the way the sentence is constructed and in the direction of the emphasis. Litotes is often combined with understatement to further emphasize something. This can be seen in certain uses of a phrase like, “It wasn't a bail deal, " for example, as a way of describing the Louisiana Purchase. Often speakers will use litotes as understatement in describing their own achievements, so as not to seem arrogant. A father may describe his child‘s graduating magna cum loade from Harvard as, “no small accomplishment." to emphasize the importance of the feat. Litotes may also be used to weaken a claim. While an obviously ironic use of litotes acts as an understatement to emphasize the initial claim. a non-ironic use can soften the edges of that same claim. This is especially true when dealing with negative words like “bad" or “weak." Instead of saying, "It was a good day," for example, we could say, “It wasn't a bad day. " While the first statement has a definite meaning—the day was good— the second statement is a bit less clear. It could mean the day was good, but it could also mean the day wasn‘t good or bad, but somewhere in between. Litotes allows the writer to say what isn‘t true, without committing as strongly to what is true. OPP” Example #l: “A cup of coffee would not be unwelcome. " Example #2: “It's not the smartest idea I've ever heard. " Example #3: “That store is not in the most convenient location." 22 POPULAR RIllTrORICAL DEVICES: STRATEGY Aurithcsis Antithesis: A fairly simple way to show a complex thought. Antithesis makes use of a contrast in language to bring out a contrast in ideas. It is one ofthe most attractive and writing. Some of the most famous lines in antithesis, from Neil Armstrong‘s "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind, " to Martin Luther King, Jr.'s “...uot hejudgcd by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. " Antithesis has a natural beauty to the human ear because we are creatures who love to organize and categorize our thoughts and ideas. Antithesis organizes ideas in a way that is both evocative and powerful, and it is an excellent tool to have in your writer's toolbox. Antithesis can be built b y contrasting any of the different parts of a statement. 0 You may wish to keep the structure of the sentences identical, but use two opposing words. The sound of a sentence built on antithesis can also be used to great effect. Trying to alliterate, or match the first sound of the contrasting words, can help highlight the opposition. For example: “Life can be kind and cruel, full of hope and heartache, " can drive the point home more eloquently than: “Life can be kind and mean, fall ofjoy and heartache. " . RllETflRICAL DEVICES: 23 A Handbook nnd Aclivilles for Student Writers Antithes‘is can also help to point out fine distinctions in an issue by presenting them together. By contrasting legality and moralityfivisdom and learning, or 51160355 and happiness, you make your reader think about the subtle shades of difference between the concepts. When dealing with ideas that you think your reader might tend to think of as the same. joining them in antithesis can help set the stage for your argument. Example #1: “We live within our limits, for we are men, not gods. " Example #2: “I speak notfrom ignorance, bntfron: experience. " Example #3: “War is not fought to achieve joy, but rather to avoid pain." Exercise 1_: _ _ Write 5 original statements that use antithesis to emphasize a point or startle a reader into paying attention. The first one has been done for you as an example. 1. The villain lives by his wits, not by his labor. < T' 24 i'nPULAR RHE'I'ORICAL DEVICES: STRATEGY Antithesr's 4 Exercise 2: For each famous quote, underline the specific words and phrases that are being contrasted by antithesis. I. "We are caught in war. wanting peace. We are torn by division, wanting unity." —Richard Nixon 2. “If a free society cannot help the many who are poor. it cannot save the few who are rich."—John F. Kennedy 3. Marc Antony: “I came to bury Caesar, not to praise him."—Shakespeare (Julius Caesar) 4. “I pass with relief from the tossing sea of Cause and Theory to the firm ground of Result and Fact." —Winston Churchill 5. "Extremism in defense oFIiberty is no vice. moder ation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue." —Barry Goldwater 6. Brutus: “Not that i loved Caesar less, b ut that I loved Rome more." —Shake5peare (Julius Caesar) RIIE‘I'ORICAL DEVICES: 25 A Ilnndlmuk and Activities for Student Writers “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom. it was the age of foolishness..." —Charles Dicken'stm Tale of Two Cities) 3, “Too black for heaven, and yet too white for hell." —J0hn Dryden (The Him! and the Panther] 9. "To err is human, to forgive, divine." —Alexander Pope (An Essay on C ri ticism] 10. “Fair is foul. and foul is fair." —-Shakespeare (Macbeth) ll. 26 POPULAR RIIETORICAL DEVICES' STRATEGY llypoplrom Device #5 So what is this? Read on, and you will see. Hypophom is the technique of asking answer it. While the name is certainly a m most useful strategic devices when writin a question, then proceeding to outhfu], hypopliom is one of the g essays to inform or persuade. For le of their press conferences, often cked by the press. A mayor might _ say, “Why am I for putting more police officers on the streets? Their presence " prevents crime. " Used appropriately, however, hypophom can accomplish a ll wide range of objectives with minimal effort. Perhaps the most common use ofluipophorn is in a standard~format essay, to introduce a paragraph. A writer will begin the paragraph with a _ question, and then use the remaining space to answer that question. For 't example. “Why should you More for me ? I’ll give you fine good reasons... " "I This can be a good way to guide your readers from point to point to make sure they're able to follow. help strengthen your case. By phrasing you make it clear that you understand this example: "So who! is the answer r this way, hypophora feels very natural help your reader feel directly connecte them first in the form of questions, your reader's thought process, as in 0 our rising crime problem?" Used in and easy, and it serves as a way to d and involved in the discussion. pertinent questions to ask. Hypophom can help introduce them to important information without making it seem as if you're forcing it upon them. Phrasing it as a question leads your readers to ‘ feel as ifthey thought of it—making your answer then seem like something they always wanted to know. The use of lrypopliom as a tool for suggestion can be incredibly powerful when used well, subtly shifting the direction of your reader's thought. you may wish to use hypoplioro to bring up a number of points. The most effective way to do this is to ask a series ofquestions that are related. and then spend some time addressing the underlying concern. While it would be possible to address each question individually, this can bore your reader and fee] contrived. By reducing a group of questions to one broader point, you are able to advance the point more effectively. RHETORICM.DEVICIES: 27 A Handbook and Activities for SIudcnt'Writcrs Example #1: "How do we know this to be true? We have observed it in the lab. " Example #2: "What then of the future? Let come what army, and we shall meet it without fear." Example #3: “Do we then submit to our oppressor? No. No. A thousand times, no." Exercise 1: _ The following passages are from “Letter from Birmingham Jail,“ written by Dr. Martin Luther King. Jr. There are very few question marks in the paragraphs. yet Dr. King has effectively used lrypopliora through implied questions and answers. Read this excerpt and underline all instances of liypopliora. While confined here in the Birmingham cityjail. I came across your recent statement calling my present activities “unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. [it sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statements in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why 1 am here In Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here I am here because I have organizational ties here. 28 PDPULAR RIIETORICAL DEVICES: SHIATEGY “mayhem But more basically. i am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their “thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, andjust as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel ofJesus Christ to the far corners ofthe Greco— Roman world, so am i compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul. I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid.... You deplore the demonstrations taking place In Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to say. fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. I am sure that none ofyou would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham. but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no altemative.... You may well ask: “Why direct action? Why sit-ins, marches and so forth? isn't negotiation a better path?" You are quite right in calling, for negotiation Indeed. this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. it seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored. RHEI'ORICAI DEVlCES: 29 A Handbook and Activities for Student Writers ' _ _:'E)§er_ci:s__e"2:- ._ rt f the following questions, write an answer that could be used to en done for you as an example. For each 0 complete the hypophoro. The first one has be 1. Why should you vote in the next election? Your future may depend on who is elected. 2. What are "American values?” 3. What must we do to get good government? 4. Why should we cut taxes? 5. Why is it better to love than be loved? 6. So you ask, “How are humans really that different from other animals?" ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern