Rhetorical_Devices_Workbook_Analogy (5) (1) (1)

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Unformatted text preview: RllEl‘tmlCAL DEVICES 63 A Handbook and Activilics for Student Writers Ut’l'lt‘t‘ t/ I! d Analogy: The analogy is as important to the writer as the computer model is to the builder. The analogy is the somewhat more down-to-earth version of the simile. Both compare two things for a specific purpose, but while the simile usually does so with a fair amount of stylistic flair, the analogy does so for much more pragmatic reasons. The analogy makes use of something already well known to explain something that is less well known. It can be one of the most effective strategic devices in both education and persuasion. helping to quickly make your reader see precisely what you mean. Perhaps the most useful form of the analogy is one in which a simple argument is substituted for a more complex argument, to help your readers understand the underlying premise. Once you have them in agreement about the simple argument, it becomes much easier for them to see and accept the more complex form. The analogy can border on a logical fallacy when the two arguments do not actually correlate exactly, but for the most part, analogies may help to shed light on a confusing issue. Example #1: “When your enemy comes to you in pain, you must do whatever is in your power to help ease that pain. For when a child comes to you in pain, do you not do everything you can? Know then that in the eyes of the Lord we are all His children. " An analogy might also be used to further elaborate on a point that is already understood. Rather than substituting. the analogy furthers the initial point, letting the reader see aspects of it that may have been missed. It can also be used to add rhetorical force to the first point, building up the argument through stronger and stronger repetition. Example #2: “The desire for wealth, when unchecked, can lead only to great evil. For though a man may begin with but a sip of wine, without restraint, the urge will grow until one day he is a drunkard, blinded to all but his need, taking whatever steps are needed to find his fix. " RIIFFDRILAL DEVICES' 65 A iinnulhdmk and Acllvitlcs l'or Sluclcnl Wrilcl's Exercise 2: -' .5 Write 10 original analogies to evoke strong images in your readers' minds or to help them to consider a familiar idea in a new way. Be especially careful to avoid cliches and meaningless statements that. while they may technically be analogies, do nothing to help a writer achieve his or her purpose. Tirefirsr one has been done for you as an example. 1. Terting has become the playground note-passing of rwcnw-firsr-century kids. ll}+ 65 POPULAR RHETORICAI. DEVICES Sl'RATEGY Analog) Exercise 3: In the following 5 phrases. create an analogy that uses each ol‘the twu elements. You may write more than one sentence to strengthen your analogy. An example has been provided for you. Theflrst one has been donefor you as an erample. 1. wealth and love Wealth and love are nearly the some: the more you have of either, the happier you think you are. 2. leading a sports team and leading a major corporation 3. small children and a force ofnature 4. a piece ofold technology and dinosaurs 5. gemstones and planets 6. intelligence and a garden RHEI‘ORICAL DEVICES: 67 A llnmlbouk and Activities for Student Writers Analagies clarify and expand ideas in much the same way that pap-up greeting cards heighten the impact of the message. "" While the analogy, the simile, and the metaphor are closely related. an analogy is meant to provide more information about a difficult concept by comparing it to an already understood idea. This is different from a siinile or metaphor. which are used to build images in the mind of the reader. Analogies build on similarities between two ideas, comparing them to illustrate a concept. An analogy is a strong strategic device for writers, who use it to persuade and teach the reader. Analogies are used by writers to quickly make a point; often by replacing a complex argument with a simpler one. An analogy can also be used innocently to provide definition to a concept. An example might be, “You may think laws restricting your ability to download music from the Internet are unfair, but you wouldn't steal a CD from the music store, would you?" However, writers may also use two arguments that do not correlate, simply to suggest a particular conclusion to a reader, such as “Uyou're going to eat fruits and vegetables grown with pesticides, you may as well throw yourself in front of a speeding truck. " When you identify an analogy in a text, examine the arguments used. Try to see if they are actually in agreement or if the author is trying to lead you on. You may also find an analogy used to add emphasis to an argument. The point may be clearly understood, but the analogy adds depth to the concept, or it enforces the point being argued. Examine the analogy closely to see how the author builds on an existing argument by tying several concepts together. Example it 1: "Those who oppose abortion and cite the right to life must also oppose the death penalty in the name of the same right. To say that euthanasia takes the decision of hfe and death out of God's hands and puts it into human hands is to admit that the artificial extension of life is likewise tantamount to playing God." 58 POPULAR RIIEI'ORICM DEVICI S. STRATEGY Analog) Exercise 4: Choose the letter of the phrase that best completes the analogy. Then, in a short sentence. explain the author‘s meaning. For each analogy, tWo answers are better than the other two, so you need to explain why you chose the one you did. You should also explain why the two that aren‘t good analogies do not work. The first one has been done for you as an example. I. The physics class was so tedious and confusing that it reminded the freshmen of watching a baby bird learn to fly reading a mystery novel that doesn't reveal the killer until the end watching a foreign movie with no subtitles witnessing a nuclear explosion PPP? The physics class would be hard to understand and will take a long time to complete. A. While learning to fly is a diflicult task, the experience of watching a bird learn to fly is neither confusing nor boring. Therefore, this analogy works, but only partially. C is the better answer. B. Reading a suspenseful mystery novel way, like a physics class, he an intellectually rigorous activity. However, the physics class is described as wearisome, while a suspenseful novel is generally engaging. C. Both the foreign film and the physics class may be difficult to understand and, as a result, may be hard to sit through. Hence. this is the best answer. D. Witnessing a nuclear explosion would he shocking. distressing, and difficult. However, it would by no means be tedious or confusing. RlllETORICAL lJIZVICES: 69 A Handbook and Aclivities for Student Writers 2. The jacket was so tight that it limited the movement ofher arms. When she tried to get it off. she looked like ' A. a sea turtle gliding through the ocean B. a tyrannosaurus rex trying to pick up something C. an angry protestor waving a sign D. a duck flapping its wings 3. Animals have feelings, so killing animalsjust for their fur A. is similar to killing a deer only for its antlers B. is morally wrong and should be illegal C. is like destroying a rainforest to make paper D. is just as heinous as the experiments the Nazis performed on victims in concentration camps 7o POPULAR RIIL’TORICAL DEVICES STRATEGY Analogy 4. Management's refusal to accept the union's concession A. came as a surprise B. made me think ofa spoiled child insulting an expensive gift he'd just opened C. made it seem as if'they wanted to prolong the strike D. was exactly what happened in the nurses' strike last year 5. i took a long look at the ancient gold prospector and noticed that the wrinkles on his face A. are as defined and deep as the ridges ofthe Grand Canyon B. cascade like a waterfall C. tell the story of his hardships D. make me think ofa bag of old fruit “fl RIIFTORICAL DIEVICFS A Handbook and Activilies for Student Writers 6. These glasses, which I never wanted to wear in the first.place. A. make me stand out too much in school, and I won‘t Wear them B. are so good at distances that it seems as if I'm wearing binoculars C. simply do not help, probably because the prescription is wrong D. are now as essential to my life as an old friend I'l- ...
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