Unit 4 Study Guide - Unit VII Perfusion 9 Unit VIII...

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Unit VII Perfusion 9 Unit VIII Diabetic patient 8 Unit VIII Comfort (Pain) 8 Unit VIII Fluid Balance 8 Unit VIII Elimination 8 Unit VIII Chronic Illness 8 CS Dressing Change, Foley, Simulation 6 Dosage Calculations 5 Unit 4 Study Guide Perfusion o Perfusion is at the tissue level o Continuous cycle o Blood flow through the arteries and capillaries to deliver oxygen and nutrients (glucose) to cells (O2in) o Removes waste products (Co2 out) o CV system (whole body) must be functioning correctly o Must be a closed system o Heart beats faster of harder= more perfusion o Open vessels (no clogged arteries) and adequate volume (enough blood) Pts with inadequate blood supply (affects perfusion) Anemia HTN Diabetes
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Dehydration Family history (increases risk factors) o Impaired perfusion Ischemia (Impaired perfusion) Inadequate blood supply to an organ/part of body especially heart muscles Heart doesn’t get enough oxygen Smoking patients, diabetes Arterial insufficiency Occlusive arterial disease impairs blood flow and diminishes pulses o No perfusion Necrosis Cell (tissue) death because of no blood supply (dead tissue) o Cardiovascular Left side pumps oxygenated blood to the body Right side deoxygenated blood returns o Diastole (low number) Relaxation phase Ventricles fill o Systole (High number) Contraction of atria then contraction of ventricles o Circulatory system Open system Bleeding (not good) Artery Thick, more pressure has to work harder Needs to be open for adequate blood flow
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Takes blood down Moves blood away Red Has 3 layers o Smooth layer o Media – middle (diameter of vessel) Vein One way Valves keep things going up Takes blood up Blue Varicose veins when valves weak 75% of blood volume prevent back flow Capillaries Gas exchange takes place Respiratory system One cell thick o Testing methods Doppler No smoking o Narrows arteries No caffeine 2 hrs prior to testing ABI (Ankle Brachial Index) 1.0 (normal) no arterial insufficiency 0.95 to 0.5 mild to moderate arterial insufficiency Less than 0.50 ischemic chest pain 0.25 or less severe ischemia Anatomy o Left Ventricle Pumps blood to entire body More muscular 2-3 times than right High aortic and arterial pressure
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o Right ventricle Low pressure in pulmonary arteries and capillaries o SA node Pacemaker of heart; electrical impulses causing atria and ventricle contraction Change electrodes every 24-48 hours Clip chest hair o Blood flow path Right Atria Tricuspid Valve Right Ventricle Pulmonic Valve Pulmonary arteries Lungs Pulmonary Vein Left Atria Mitral Valve Left Ventricle Aortic Efficiency of heart o Rate rythym and contractility o Valve functioning o Blood flow to the myocardium Pt feels Chest pain due to ischemia Ischemia causes enlarged heart o
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