GEOL 113 - 2/7 Sciences in Earth Science Geology...

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2/7 Sciences in Earth Science Geology Oceanography Meteorology Astronomy What is a system? A group of interacting/interdependent parts that form a system Matter and Minerals Where do Earth Materials come from? The Nature of our Solar System -Two groups: Terrestrial & Gas-giant Terrestrial: small, dense, rocky (Mercury, Earth, Venus, Mars) Gas-giant: Large, low-density, gas-giant planets Where do elements come from? -Big Bang nucleosynthesis formed the lightest elements (1-5) -Heavier elements are from stellar nucleosynthesis (6-26) -Elements with atomic numbers greater than 26 form a supernovae Nebular hypothesis for solar system formation -Giant spinning cloud of gas and dust, core grew with gravity, heat created nuclear fusion What is the Earth made of? -Crust (Least Dense, thin layer), mantle (Denser), core (most dense, mostly iron) -91.2% of Earth is only made up of 4 elements: Iron, Oxygen, Silicon, Magnesium 2/21 Processes that turns exisiting rocks into a new sedimentary rock -Weathering -Erosion -Transport -Deposition -Lithification Sediment and sedimentary rocks -Cover 80% of Earth’s surface, less than 1% of volume of crust -“Thin Blanket” on top of other rocks -Sediment and sedimentary rxs are the result of Ign -Rock is disintegrated and decomposed (physical and chemical weathering), moved to lower elevation…. Mechanical (physical) weathering: Bigger to smaller pieces
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Chemical weathering: Rock is disintegrated and decomposed, surface of the rock is reacting with oxygen in the atmosphere Classes of sedimentary rock -Clastic -Biochemical -Organic -Chemical Sedimentary Structures -Layers, called “Beds”, deposited from gravity -Stratified means layering -Bedding stands out clearly appearing as bands that can be traced laterally across an outcrop -Dunes are similar to ripples except they are much larger, occur in streams or in desert/beach regions from water or wind-transported sand Depositional Environments -Terrestrial (Land), those where sediment is deposited above sea level -Marine and Coastal Terrestrial Environments: Glacial Environments -Rough setting -Little time for chemical weathering -Large range of rock sizes River Environments -Sand, silt, clay -Varies Mountain Valley Environments -Alluvial Fan formed Desert Environments -Dunes preserved as crossbedded sandstones Lake Environments -Only sediment in the lake are fine-grained -Will form shale -Seasonal Marine or Coastal Beach Reef Shallow Marine Environments Deep Marine Environments Metamorphic Rocks -Metamorphism: A process of change, the sum of all changes in environmental conditions -“Agents of metamorphism”: Change in temperature, pressure, or circulating fluids Ex: Garnet Shist -Most rocks experience some change in their history bc of plate tectonics -Two subcategories: Foliated vs. Non Foliated
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Foliation -Parallel planar layers in metamorphic rocks -Folia means life Ex: Gneiss -Metamorphism can change mineralogy Ex: Red Shale is protolith transforms to Gneiss
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