Chapter 7 - One way we learn(the process of acquiring...

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One way we learn (the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors) is by association Associative Learning- learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning) Classical Conditioning- we learn to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events; a type of learning in which one learns to like two or more stimuli and anticipate events Neutral Stimuli (NS)- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Extinction- the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous Recovery- the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response John B. Watson- Little Albert and rats Operant Conditioning- a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by punisher Operant Chamber- (Skinner) in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record that animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking Reinforcement- in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Positive Reinforcement- increasing behaviors by pressing in g positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. Negative Reinforcement- increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A Negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Negative reinforcement is not punishment) Punishment- an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten. This temporary state may (negatively) reinforce parents’ punishing behavior. Punishment teaches discrimination among situations- the child may swear elsewhere Punishment can teach fear- association of fear with undesirable behavior and punisher/ place it occurred
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Physical punishment may increase aggression (modeling aggression) Stimulus- any event or situation that evokes a response Operant Conditioning- association of response to its consequence Cognitive Learning- the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language Observational learning- learning through experience Cognitive learning- learning things we have neither experienced nor observed through language
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