Chapter 9 - Psychologist who study Cognition(the mental...

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Psychologist who study Cognition (the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating) focus on the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information Concept-a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people Prototype- a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin) Some problems are solved through trial and error Algorithm- a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone - use of heuristics Heuristic- a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments, and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms Insight- a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions Confirmation Bias- a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence Mental Set- a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past Perceptual Set- predisposes what we perceive, a mental set predisposes how we think Intuition- an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning Availability Heuristic- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness) we presume such events are common 4 influences that feed fear and cause us to ignore higher risks: 1. WE fear that our ancestral history has prepared us to fear 2. We fear what we cannot control 3. We fear what is immediate 4. Thanks to the availability heuristic, we fear what is most readily available in memory Overconfidence- the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
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Belief Perseverance- clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited Framing- the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments Creativity- the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Aptitude- ability to learn Convergent Thinking- narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution Divergent Thinking- expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions) Sternberg’s 5 components of creativity: 1. Expertise- a well-developed base of knowledge - furnishes the ideas, images, and phrases we use as mental building blocks. The more blocks we have, the more chances we have to combine them in novel ways.
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