Chapter 12 with notes - Chapter 12 Equilibria Rates and...

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Chapter 12 – Equilibria, Rates, and Mechanisms Instructor: Dr. Daniel Seidel Chem 315 Principal questions in this chapter: How much product should I get from a reaction? How fast does a reaction run? How do I favor one possible product in a reaction?
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Stability is best illustrated in an Energy Profile Diagram cis trans Why is the trans amide more stable? What does X look like? H N R O R Why is X so unstable (high in energy)
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Energy Profile Diagrams are also used to describe reactions Here the x-axis is an arbitrary “reaction coordinate”: how close is a molecule to the reactants’ or products’ structure.
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The “How Much” Question: Equilibrium and Thermodynamics G° = - RT ln K eq G° (standard Gibbs free energy change) is the difference in energy between the products and reactants and is related to the equilibrium constant:
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The “How Much” Question: Equilibrium and Thermodynamics G° = - RT ln K eq OR K eq = e –( G°/ RT) are very powerful tools R = 8.314 J K -1 mol -1 T is in Kelvin Can you justify the following facts? G°> 0 means the reactants will be favored at equilibrium G°< 0 means the products will be favored at equilibrium G°= 0 means K eq = 1 Does a small change in G° affect the equilibrium constant? Note the exponential relationship
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The “How Much” Question: Equilibrium and Thermodynamics G° = - RT ln K eq OR K eq = e –( G°/ RT) Does a small change in G° affect the equilibrium constant?
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