micro chapter4 2015 - FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF PROKARYOTIC AND...

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FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS Chapter 4
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DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS (PRENUCLEUS) DNA is not enclosed in a membrane (no nucleus) most distiguishing one circular chromosome (big circular donut) No histone proteins(involved in DNA replication) Lack membrane bound organelles (contain other organelles) Cell walls almost always contain peptidoglycan what makes bacteria bacteria Divide by binary fission (asexual) every cell exactly the same unless mutation
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DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS (TRUE NUCLEUS) DNA is separated by a nuclear membrane(contains nucleus) DNA is found in multiple chromosomes(depends on speices) Contain histone proteins(dna rep) Membrane-bound organelles(mitchochria, golgi appartaus) (very organized) cell walls are simple Usually divide by mitosis (sexual)
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SIZE, SHAPE, AND ARRANGEM ENT OF BACTERIAL CELLS : COCCI
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SIZE, SHAPE, AND ARRANGEME NT OF BACTERIAL CELLS : BACILLUS
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SIZE, SHAPE, AND ARRANGEM ENT OF BACTERIAL CELLS : SPIRAL
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SIZE, SHAPE, AND ARRANGEMENT OF BACTERIAL CELLS : OTHER Stella Haloarcula
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STRUCTURES EXTERNAL TO THE CELL WALL Glycocalyx Flagella Axial Filaments Fimbrae Pili
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GLYCOCALYX A glycocalyx is a “sugar coat” made of various polysaccharides and polypeptides.(coat around bacteriaa) Made inside the bacteria and excreted outside. Two types of glycocalyx : Capsules: closely attached to cell wall(protects)Usually Pathogenic Slime layers: loosely attached to cell wall Functions : protection and attachment.
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CAPSULES Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacillus anthracis
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Typical Prokaryotic Cell
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FLAGELLA Some prokaryotic cells have flagella The arrangement of flagella is unique to some organisms : Monotrichous (1 flagella @ 1 end) Amphitrichous Lophotrichous Peritrichous (know what they are)
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FLAGELLA Some prokaryotic cells have flagella The arrangement of flagella is unique to some organisms : Monotrichous Amphitrichous Lophotrichous Peritrichous
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FLAGELLA Some prokaryotic cells have flagella The arrangement of flagella is unique to some organisms : Monotrichous Amphitrichous several flagella at either end Lophotrichous
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