NOTES for exam 2 - REVIEW All notes condensed Block Grants...

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REVIEW: All notes condensed Block Grants : federal government provides exact amount of money for some specific purpose o Have to follow criteria Matching Grants : federal government promises matching funds for every dollar a state spends o Equalizer: equal opportunities and resources for all states o Ex. Medicaid Adopted by 32, 19 not adopting Unfunded Mandates : require states to administer a given program without compensating the state for the costs of said program o Ex. American Disabilities Act Civil Rights : protections BY GOVERNMENT o For the MAJORITY to protect the people Civil Liberties : protections FROM GOVERNMENT o For the MINORITY and forcing the majority to conform to a civil liberty and rights Can’t be unjust to a certain group Ex. Racial, sexual, ethnic minority groups, etc.) Civil Rights v. Civil Liberties o Civil Rights: require government to act o Civil Liberties: government does nothing Racial Classification: social construct of classifying individuals on physical features (not biological; no proof of genetic cuts between the races); NOT REAL o Social Construct: 1900’s laws characterized people as black by being 1/16 th of black heritage Shaped how we view racial groups Ethical Group: a classification of people based mainly on shared national origin or common ancestry (not tied to any characteristics) o Ex. Census: Blacks/African Americans: race, pan-ethnic group Hispanic: ethnic group Asian Americans: race, pan-ethnic group Emerging idea of race: o Middle Ages: English contact with Africans o Wanted to conquer Irish and failed (16 th and 17 th century) “Wild Irish” Stopped relations with Irish because of this (cut ties) Racialization: process of ascribing ethical or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group that did not identify itself as such. o Ex. YOU ARE WHITE! o Spanish had success with slaves, LETS GET SLAVES TOO! Separated people based on their looks (blacks and slaves) Created laws for no mixing between races, perpetuated for years & years Image of transferred for Black Population o long process: not enough labor to process new crops and wage labor was too expensive
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o Indentured servitude: 4-7 years of work in return for passage to the New World; had miserable conditions Promised free land (not true, land owners took it back and they returned as slaves or beggars o Whites and Blacks worked together in Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) Uprising against Virginia freaked out government they were outnumbered by poor people Solution for White Elites o Divide and Conquer: created a “buffer category” of the poor whites who could identify themselves with elite planters and plantation owners (JUSTIFICATION) Idea that slavery and to police the slaves Eliminated alliances between black and white servants Gave rights and privileges to whites and took them away from blacks Extension of slavery to blacks because of Spanish success with slavery
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