Classnotes_2_updated - Classnotes 2(Chapter 2 UPDATED 1/27...

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Classnotes 2 (Chapter 2) UPDATED 1/27 at 1030am Objectives/Key Words: remember to always find info on these terms from text as well. Theories of Development: Passive/Reactive Development vs. Active Development Mechanistic Model: Reactive/Passive vs. Organismic: Active Locke & ‘tabula rasa’ vs. Rousseau & ‘noble savages’ Stage vs. Continuous Theories of Development; quantitative vs. qualitative change; what is meant by bidirectional? Understand the main tenets of Freud’s Psychosexual Theory; Be prepared to recognize examples. Key words: 5 Stage model of psychosexual development (know the 5 stages), fixation, castration anxiety, penis envy, oedipal complex. Freudian mind structures: id, ego, superego; other key words here: pleasure principle, reality principle (text only) Know the basics of Erikson’s 8 Stages; know examples from stage 1 (trust vs mistrust) and stage 8 (integrity vs despair) – (text only) Learning Theory Behaviorism; John Watson and ‘Little Albert;’ classical conditioning of fear Operant Conditioning: Positive and negative reinforcement; positive and negative punishment Be able to recognize developmental-based examples Social Learning (Cognitive) Theory – Bandura: aka: observational learning or modeling Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study; Know findings of the Bobo doll study Cognitive Stage Model (Piaget) 2 assumptions of this model? 3 Stages of cognitive growth: Key words here: schemes, organization, adaptation, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration Know examples. Ethology/Evolutionary/Sociobiological Model Key words: ethology, neoteny, fitness, adaptive strategies. Know examples. **Go over Bronfenbrenner’s contextual perspective on own (starting pg 36 of text) Key words: bioecological theory; microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem End of Material on Exam 1 Beginning of Material on Exam 2 Research Methodology Research Methodology Understand the 4 types of Descriptive Methods (naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys/self-report,  correlational studies).  Naturalistic Observation  Observing people and other animals in “natural” settings  o Teenager at a rave o Children at a playground  Every attempt is made to be unnoticed by your subjects so that your presence does not alter subject’s  behavior  Subject Expectancy Effects:  Behavior is changed due to being observed  Advantages o Can observe behaviors that for ethical reasons cannot be manipulated; high generalizability  (finding represent real life) 1
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Disadvantages o Difficult to discount biases or other factors; lack of control over settings and subjects  Case Studies  Intensive investigation of 1 person or small group (less than 10) o …unique condition/trait/event Large amount of information o Records (school, criminal, medical) o Interviews, surveys, with subject and friends/relative  Often used clinically (ex. Childhood schizophrenia) Advantages  o
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