Kines 203- chapter 16 - Kines 203 Chapter 16 Endocrine...

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Kines 203 Chapter 16: Endocrine System Introduction Self-regulating system Widely distributed group of glands that secrete hormones to maintain homeostasis (ex. diabetes) All endocrine glands are ductless, meaning hormones are secreted into blood directly Target tissues have receptors that respond to the hormones Hormones Production id in extremely small amounts but highly potent Act on target tissue to affect growth, metabolism, behavior and reproduction Steroid hormones: lipid based o Sex glands and adrenal glands (outer) Amino acid hormones: protein based o Remaining endocrine glands Clinical Concerns of the Endocrine System 1. Problems with hormone secretion (hypersecretion or hyposecretion) 2. Problems with the receptor target tissues 3. Problems with glands themselves Pituitary Gland (hypophysis) Small gland beneath the brain controlled by the hypothalamus o Anterior lobe releases six hormones: Growth hormone (somatotropin) TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) ACTH (andrenocorticotropic hormone) FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) LH (luteinizing hormone) PRL (prolactin) o Posterior lobe releases two hormones: ADH (antidiuretic hormone): water conservation by kidneys
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Oxytocin: stimulate uterine contractions Rx: ptocin is given women to stimulate labor Thyroid & Parathyroid Gland Thyroid o Two lobes on either side of the larynx and upper trachea T 4 (thyroxine) T 3 (triiodothyronine) Both T 3 and T 4 contain iodine which is bound to proteins in the blood Parathyroid o Found on the posterior surface of the thyroid Usually 4-6 glands o Secretes PTH (parathyroid hormone) o Calcium metabolism in regulated by parathyroid increasing Ca Adrenal Glands Located on top of each kidney o Outer cortex Cortisol: decrease inflammation (rx: hydrocortisone) and increase fats and CHO in blood
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